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非洲工业化转型,中国经验值得借鉴

2018年09月13日 21:44来源:网络整理手机版

9月4日,主题为“推进工业化合作,助力共赢发展”的第六届中非企业家大会在京召开。王欲然 摄

9月4日,主题为“推进工业化合作,助力共赢发展”的第六届中非企业家大会在京召开。王欲然 摄

人民网北京9月4日电 (记者 王欲然 杜明明 王天乐) 9月4日,在中非领导人与工商界代表高层对话会暨第六届中非企业家大会(以下简称中非企业家大会)上,“推进工业化合作,助力共赢发展”成为中非合作的话题。同时,面对非洲已有自然资源如何实现工业化转型,中国工业化发展的成功经验如何借鉴,成为此次研讨会的关注点。

中国经验值得借鉴

“基础建设是非洲实现工业化转型的前提和基础,”非洲开发银行行长阿金武米·阿德希纳表示,随着非洲工业化发展的加速,非洲的电力设施建设显得尤为重要。为此,非洲开发银行重视在能源领域的投资。在农业向工业化转型中,中国的经验值得非洲学习。

摩洛哥企业家联合会主席萨拉赫丁·梅祖尔表示,中非合作论坛北京峰会非常具有活力,而且具有积极的信息源。他认为,非洲大陆和中国的发展道路很相似。目前,非洲工业化发展面临三个方面:一是人口压力越来越大,特别是年轻群体增多。二是缺少有吸引力的岗位,导致人才流失。三是气候变化导致农业发生变化。

“非洲的工业化应该纳入到世界的价值链当中,素材信息,中国的经验非常值得借鉴。”梅祖尔强调,非洲工业化转型,如果没有良好的基础设施建设,不可能发展具有竞争力的工业产业。现阶段,非洲的工业化转型也为中国企业带来了发展机遇,可以借助非洲的资源优势,打造新型的合作伙伴关系。据介绍,目前摩洛哥出台了两个新政策:一是鼓励私营部门的兴起。二是,新兴产业的发展,如汽车行业。由于进摩洛哥具有交通枢纽优势,吸引了雷诺、标致到摩洛哥投资。

“到2050年,尼日利亚人口增长到2.5亿,资源也会进一步有序开发,随着非洲人口的进一步增长,资本密集型、人口密集型的产业需要得到更好的发展。人才是非洲最重要的资源,要在年轻人口上进行进一步的投资,开发他们的潜力。”尼日利亚投资促进委员会首席执行官伊万蒂·萨迪库如是说。

在卢旺达发展署首席执行官哈蒂杰卡看来,中国所取得的巨大成绩,是以改革开放政策创新作为引领,并进一步开发新技术,进一步融入到全球快速发展的国家行列当中。借鉴中国经验,卢旺达要确保政策支持,以保证工业化的可持续发展,并确保有效和透明的机制打击腐败。此外,卢旺达要进一步确保宏观经济的稳定性,确保通货膨胀控制在5%以下。希望能够2050年实现经济的8%的增长,年均7.2%的增长。同时,还要进一步确保建设有利的经商环境,吸引投资。

互联互通、共建共享能源体系

“加快工业化转型,能源是重中之重。”中国石油天然气集团有限公司(以下简称中石油)董事长王宜林介绍说,自1995年起,中石油开始在非洲进行油气的投资合作业务。在非洲10个主要油气资源国里,中石油在7个国家投资了18个项目,为非洲财政贡献近6亿美元。重要的是,为非洲解决了12万人的就业,按照中非各国领导人达成的共识,中石油积极参与社会公益事业,拉动了相关的其它领域的投资,比如相关的服务投资项目已经遍布非洲30个国家,得到了中国政府和非洲各国政府的大力支持。

据中钢集团(以下简称中钢)董事长徐思伟介绍,中钢作为冶金工业提供集成综合配套服务的产业服务商,主要业务领域集中在矿业资源的开发、工程装备制造、工程技术的提供和新产品研发。他表示,中国和非洲从来都是休戚与共的命运共同体。截至目前,中钢陆续在津巴布韦和南非投资建立起资源的开发基地和冶炼生产工厂。近年来,响应“一带一路”建设,在国际产能合作方面开展了与非洲的合作,大力推动中钢在加蓬和喀麦隆铁矿资源项目的开发。

“中非发展基金本身就是中非论坛的产物。”中非发展基金有限公司董事长杨宝华强调,中非合作发展基金自2007年成立,到本届中非合作论坛峰会已经有11年的历史。这其中有两点体会:第一,工业化是非洲国家走向现代化的一个必由之路。只有实现工业化,才能改变非洲国家单一脆弱的经济结构,也只有实现工业化,才能实现非洲国家的自主独立发展和结构的产业升级。 第二,中非工业化合作优势互补,潜力巨大。中国40年改革开放经验证明,只有改革开放才能带来巨大的发展潜力。

“构建全球能源互联网,对于解决能源问题具有重要的意义。”全球能源互联网发展合作组织秘书长伍萱认为,解决了能源问题,就为工业化发展铺平了道路。但是在工业化的进程中,世界各国都面临共同的挑战,这就是化石能源的大量消耗,带来严重的资源污染、环境破坏和气候变化问题,也严重制约了可持续发展。而构建全球能源互联网就是破解能源困局、实现能源转型,解决这些问题的根本途径。

伍萱强调说,全球能源互联网就是清洁能源在全球范围大规模开发、输送、配置和使用的平台,是互联互通、共建共享的现代能源体系,实质上就是智能电网+特高压电网+清洁能源。智能电网是基础,特高压电网是关键,百觉阅读网,清洁能源是根本。通过构建全球能源互联网,能够实现两个替代,也就是在能源开发侧实施清洁替代,以太阳能、风能和水电等清洁能源替代化石能源,在能源消费侧实施电能替代,以电代煤,以电代油,以电代气,从而提高电气化水平,降低能源强度,提高能源效率,有效地解决资源紧张、环境污染和气候变化问题,为工业化发展提供可靠的能源保障。

非洲工业化转型,中国经验值得借鉴

(责编:贾文婷、常红)

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