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西方制裁掣肘叙利亚战后重建吓退外国投资者

2018年09月09日 20:39来源:网络整理手机版

  随着叙利亚政府军收复大部分失地,叙总统巴沙尔·阿萨德寻求带领叙利亚展开战后重建。但路透社报道,来自西方的制裁可能“吓退”外国投资者,成为叙利亚重建的主要障碍。

  【百废待兴】

  自2011年爆发冲突以来,叙利亚国民经济遭受重创。一些国际观察团体估计,叙利亚内战致使至少40万人死亡,叙政府军损失数以万计兵力,数以百万计劳动力逃离家乡。联合国一个机构估算,内战使叙利亚损失3880亿美元。

  叙利亚政府军已经收复除西北部伊德利卜省以外大部分失地,不过大规模的战后重建依然遥遥无期。路透社报道,俄罗斯、伊朗等支持巴沙尔的国家在叙利亚有一些投资,但无法负担重建全部成本,板报网,叙利亚政府希望其他国家一同分担。

  然而,美欧等西方国家坚持认定,在没有达成政治协议的情况下,不允许向叙利亚重建出资,或者解除对叙制裁。这些制裁涉及范围广、力度大,不仅限制美欧企业、个人与叙利亚往来,也使其他地区的外国企业对叙投资承受巨大风险。

  【制裁拦路】

  美国在2011年叙利亚内战爆发前已经开始对叙制裁。2011年8月,时任美国总统贝拉克·奥巴马签署总统令,对叙利亚实施“前所未有”的制裁。

  美国对叙制裁内容包括,冻结叙利亚政府和数百家叙利亚企业和个人在美国管辖范围内的所有资产;禁止任何美国人到叙利亚投资或有其他经贸往来。

  美国政府今年4月逮捕一家美国企业在保加利亚分支机构的当地雇员,这家企业涉嫌违反美国针对叙利亚的制裁,另有3名美国人因此入狱。

  路透社报道,河南日报,美国对触犯制裁条款的惩处不仅针对美国人,那些为叙利亚规避制裁提供帮助的外国企业或个人同样会被列入黑名单,失去大部分与美国人做生意的机会。

  欧洲联盟2011年5月起强化对叙制裁,随后数次更新制裁内容,包括资产冻结、旅行禁令、贸易设限、金融制裁和武器禁运。奢侈品、宝石,用于勘探、开采或提炼石油和天然气的金属、设备和技术都被列入禁止出口清单。

  此外,欧盟盯上叙利亚电网,禁止欧盟企业在叙利亚投资或参与发电站建设。

  叙利亚财政部长马蒙·哈姆丹上周接受路透社记者采访时说,西方国家对叙制裁不公,因为它同时影响了政府、军队和普通平民。

  【企业观望】

  西方国家大范围制裁使大量企业对投资叙利亚望而却步,多数企业选择继续观望。

  德国管道制造商奥斯滕多夫塑料公司近期参加了在叙利亚首都大马士革举办的国际贸易展览会,尝试与潜在客户建立联系,期待日后进入叙利亚市场。它没有签任何合同。这家企业在黎巴嫩首都贝鲁特的代表纳比尔·莫格拉比告诉路透社记者,他们正在等待叙利亚政治前景变得更加明朗。

  “我们有障碍。从德国到叙利亚没有直达的海上航线。叙利亚银行无法从欧洲接收一分钱,欧洲企业则担心从叙利亚收钱(违反制裁)。”莫格拉比说。

  伦敦一家提供制裁咨询服务的律师事务所合伙人安娜·布拉德肖告诉路透社记者:“那些被(企业)委派参与重建的负责人和员工可能成为金融制裁的目标。”(记者 刘秀玲)(新华社专特稿)

(责编:龚茜(实习生)、刘洁妍)

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