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海南鸡饭,新加坡要申遗

2018年09月07日 03:50来源:网络整理手机版

海南鸡饭资料图片

海南鸡饭资料图片

新加坡要为小吃摊申请世界非物质文化遗产,邻国马来西亚厨师愤怒抗议,关于海南鸡饭的“版权”属于谁,两国一直争论不休。将海南鸡饭形容为新加坡国菜并不为过,新加坡整理非物质文化遗产名单,让本地人自豪的文化遗产中,海南鸡饭不仅榜上有名,还名列前茅。海南鸡饭在外名声最响亮。在新加坡,鸡饭摊位林立,“海南鸡饭”从小吃店的一盘2新元鸡饭,到高级酒店的二十几新元一份鸡饭套餐都有。

源自中国海南

海南鸡饭起源自海南名菜文昌鸡,那是20世纪初海南移民下南洋后,由家乡带来的美食,再经过调整改良演变出来的家乡菜。笔者几年前到海南岛旅游,吃了当地有名的文昌鸡,虽然都属于白斩鸡,但味道却不尽相同,这和鸡的种类以及配料、工序不同有关。鸡饭在新加坡经过多年演变与发展,已成为充满新加坡风味与印记的一道美食,而“海南鸡饭”这个“商标式”的名称,也已和新加坡紧紧相连。“文东记”鸡饭店老板程文华说,海南鸡饭不只是一道美食,而是中国海南岛人移民南洋的文化产物。著名美食家蔡澜甚至说:“海南鸡饭是新加坡华侨演变出来的文化融合食物,应该正名为星洲鸡饭才对。”

海南鸡饭做法其实不算太难,简单来说就是将鸡浸泡在大蒜、生抽、熬好 的汤中煮熟,然后再泡入冷水中,这样能让鸡肉更为嫩滑,鸡皮和肉之间还会形成凝脂,更为可口,据说过冷水是广东人引进的手法,这更进一步改良了鸡饭的做法,虽然是海南鸡饭,其实也加入了广东人的智慧。饭也马虎不得,除了用鸡汤和鸡油、还需要加入本地香料班兰叶,这样饭才会更香。

海南鸡饭虽然指白斩鸡,但摊贩也同时售卖烧鸡,如果你不想吃白斩鸡,和摊贩点黑的,就是要烧鸡,另外,如果你想吃得健康点,可以提醒摊贩给你鸡胸肉,如果想吃豪华一点,可以点鸡腿肉,另外还可以加鸡心、鸡胗或卤蛋等小菜,不少海南鸡饭还会为你起骨,吃起来更为方便。

虽然是平民美食,但制作并不随便,本地小贩美食都会搭配蘸料,但鲜少如海南鸡饭这样同时提供三种不同的蘸料,黑酱油、姜蓉和辣椒酱。其中辣椒酱,每个摊位都有独家配制的秘方,还会加入南洋人特爱的酸柑汁,辣中带有果酸味,南洋的味道本来就是不纯粹的,混合的。

不少业者掌握做鸡饭的窍门后,极速体育,继续求新求变改良鸡饭,让鸡饭更香滑美味,也更本土化,适合新加坡人口味。

故事很多

新马两地因历史、地理等因素,文化风俗颇为相似,美食体验也相通。究竟海南鸡饭是新加坡人还是马来西亚人发明的?各有各的证据。王振春是活跃于新加坡海南人社群的老报人,据他的说法,王义元是第一个在新加坡卖海南鸡饭的人,他在家乡文昌的“毓葵鸡饭店”学会了烫鸡的手法,1936年离乡背井到南洋讨生活,提着竹箩沿街叫卖白斩鸡和鸡饭。攒够了钱,就在当时的海南二街的咖啡店卖鸡饭。

海南鸡饭和大部分新加坡人的日常生活是分不开的,新加坡人甚至将之制作成汉堡、雪糕、茶品等。本地雪糕店配合国庆日,7月底推出鸡饭雪糕,鸡饭雪糕以米浆为基本调料,其他材料有鸡汤、蒜头、姜和香料,而且加了米饭增添口感,还融入黑酱油和鸡饭辣椒。

新加坡人关于海南鸡饭的故事很多。记得小时候家附近的小贩中心里就有两家海南鸡饭摊,经常发生抢客现象,后来据说还大动干戈,上了报纸。著名的天天海南鸡饭,隔着三个摊位就是阿仔海南鸡饭,是原天天的主厨开的,因为和老板闹意见,在几步之遥的距离自立门户,打起擂台,吃过的人都说味道差别不大,但排队人龙却天壤之别。有时候,味道以外的故事更有戏剧性和刺激感,更令人津津乐道。

老字号的秘诀

由于鸡饭业者的努力、有关当局和媒体的宣传和包装,加上互联网推动,新加坡海南鸡饭已成功走出国门,迈向国际。

新加坡有两家著名老字号。一家是小贩中心里的摊位“天天海南鸡饭”,一家是有规模的连锁鸡饭店“文东记”。无论摊位还是连锁店,它们都在美食版图上,为新加坡增添滋味。

2016年,新加坡17个美食摊位荣登国际知名的米其林指南价廉物美食物榜单,麦士威小贩中心的“天天海南鸡饭”榜上有名。2017年,“天天海南鸡饭”再度登上该榜单。本地饕客说,好的鸡饭就是要饭粒不能太软也不能太干;鸡肉要香嫩,不能煮得过老;辣椒酱要够味,但不能过辣。这些精细平衡的要求,天天海南鸡饭都做到了。

年过花甲的老板符慧莲说,新加坡著名的鸡饭业者不少,每一家的味道之所以有差别,各具特色,主要就是使用的材料有所不同。“就以酱料来说吧,我们所用的酱料,一直以来都是自己调制的,别处找不到。在烹调过程中,极速体育,蒜、葱、姜、辣椒、酸柑、麻油、冰糖等的比例要多少,要煮多久,都必须按照一定步骤进行,每一个步骤都受到严密监督。”(环球时报驻新加坡记者 叶孝忠)

(责编:姚丽娟、刘洁妍)

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