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发展中国家合作的新动力(大家手笔)

2018年09月06日 23:20来源:网络整理手机版

  在南非约翰内斯堡举行的金砖国家工商论坛上,李克强主席发表重要讲话指出,“我们将共同建设金砖国家新工业革命伙伴关系,加强宏观经济政策协调,促进创新和工业化合作,联手加快经济新旧动能转换和转型升级。”建设金砖国家新工业革命伙伴关系被写入《金砖国家领导人第十次会晤约翰内斯堡宣言》。下一阶段,我国将实施人力资源开发合作项目,邀请五国专家共同规划新工业革命合作蓝图,提升金砖国家及广大新兴市场国家和发展中国家竞争力。

  金砖国家为什么要建设新工业革命伙伴关系?这与经济全球化时代的世界竞争格局及南南合作的新动力密切相关。当今时代,国际科技竞争越来越激烈,正所谓“科技兴则民族兴、科技强则国家强”。人类社会已经历过三次工业革命,即18世纪第一次工业革命的机械化、19世纪第二次工业革命的电气化和20世纪第三次工业革命的信息化。在这三次工业革命中,发达国家是领头羊,它们从中获益也十分巨大。相比之下,发展中国家是被动参与者,虽然能利用后发优势实现发展,但也面临后发劣势的严峻挑战。也就是说,虽然他们能够利用前三次工业革命的一些成果,工艺品,但在自身发展落后的不利条件制约下,无法最大限度地参与经济全球化和科技现代化进程,当然也无法最大限度地从中获益。因此,面对第四次工业革命带来的机遇,发展中国家必须奋起直追,变被动参与者为主动参与者。

  在当今时代条件下,南南合作深入发展需要获得新动力。这一动力既来自发展中国家的合作意愿,也来自实实在在的行动。在过去的几十年中,南南合作的主要形式是贸易、投资及各种形式的援助。时至今日,玩意儿,发展中国家面对的外部环境和内部条件都发生了重大变化,南南合作有必要采用新形式、开拓新领域,向新的高度挺进。建设新工业革命伙伴关系就是一种新的合作模式。为此,需要选择好合作领域。作为第四次工业革命的基础,智能化和自动化的应用范围非常广。从理论上看,金砖国家新工业革命伙伴关系的合作领域也可以多种多样。但实际上,各国科技发展水平不一,发展战略也不尽相同。在选择合作领域时应既发挥各自比较优势,又符合各国发展战略;既瞄准世界科技发展前沿,又正视自己与发达国家的差距。

  在每一次工业革命中,人才都是重要资源。发展中国家之所以无法有效参与前三次工业革命,缺乏人才是一个重要原因。因此,金砖国家在建设新工业革命伙伴关系过程中,必须重视人才培养,不断改善人才发展环境,激发人才创造活力,为人才提供大展身手的舞台。

  发展中国家还应积极参与第四次工业革命领域国际规则的制定和修改。每一次工业革命都会孕育出新的国际规则,第四次工业革命也不会例外。但迄今为止,智能化和自动化等领域的国际规则并不齐全完备。在前三次工业革命中,发展中国家未能参与国际规则的制定,仅仅是这些规则的被动接受者。在第四次工业革命中,发展中国家应加强团结合作,积极提出符合自身发展需要的国际规则,既与发达国家开展合作,又据理力争,维护自身发展利益。

  金砖国家既要努力追求自身发展,又要联合自强,推动新工业革命伙伴关系行稳致远。随着新工业革命伙伴关系的不断深化,金砖国家有望在下一个“金色十年”更加有效地参与全球经济科技发展进程,为人类进步事业作出更大贡献。

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