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【改革开放40年】对外经贸跨越发展开放水平全面提升

2018年09月04日 07:13来源:网络整理手机版

对外经贸跨越发展开放水平全面提升

——改革开放40年经济社会发展成就系列报告之三

1978年,我国开启改革开放的伟大历程。1980年,深圳、珠海、汕头、厦门建立经济特区,拉开了我国对外开放的序幕,此后,沿海、沿江、沿边、内陆地区相继开放,形成了分步骤、多层次、逐步开放的格局。2001年,我国加入世界贸易组织,对外开放进入了历史新阶段。党的十八大以来,我国加快构建开放型经济新体制。2013年,提出共建“一带一路”倡议,推动经济全球化健康发展,同年,中国(上海)自由贸易试验区成立,探索我国对外开放的新路径和新模式;2015年,首个由中国倡议设立的多边金融机构亚洲基础设施投资银行成立;2016年,人民币纳入特别提款权(SDR)货币篮子;2017年,首届“一带一路”国际高峰论坛在北京举办;2018年,中国国家主席李克强出席博鳌亚洲论坛年会开幕式并发表主旨演讲,宣布了一系列对外开放重大举措。40年来,对外贸易实现历史性跨越,区域开放布局不断优化,外商投资环境持续改善,对外投资合作深入推进,我国成功实现从封闭半封闭到全方位开放的伟大转折,中国开放的大门越开越大,中国经济深度融入全球经济。

一、货物贸易不断开拓新格局,实现历史性跨越

货物贸易既是我国开放型经济建设的重要部分,又是经济增长的强力引擎和综合国力不断增强的重要支撑。改革开放40年来,我国紧紧抓住全球化快速发展的历史机遇,推进外贸体制改革,加快动力转换和结构调整,市场主体更加活跃,货物贸易伙伴更趋多元,我国从贸易大国迈向贸易强国的步伐更加坚定。

(一)货物贸易总量高速增长。

货物进出口规模实现跨越式发展。1978年到2017年,按人民币计价,我国进出口总额从355亿元提高到27.8万亿元,增长782倍,年均增速达18.6%。其中,出口总额从168亿元提高到15.3万亿元,增长914倍,年均增速为19.1%;进口总额从187亿元提高到12.5万亿元,增长664倍,年均增速为18.1%。按美元计价,我国进出口总额从206亿美元提高到4.1万亿美元,增长198倍,年均增速达14.5%。其中,出口总额从97.5亿美元提高到2.3万亿美元,增长231倍,年均增速为15%;进口总额从109亿美元提高到1.8万亿美元,零启互联,增长168倍,年均增速为14.1%。党的十八大以来,我国坚持深化改革、扩大开放,积极应对国际金融危机后续影响等一系列重大风险挑战,努力适应外贸发展新常态,进出口形势明显好于世界其他主要经济体,对世界贸易发展做出重要贡献。

货物贸易占世界比重大幅提升。改革开放初期,我国货物进出口占国际市场份额仅为0.8%,在全球货物贸易中列第29位。随着货物贸易额稳步增加,居世界的位次逐步提高,特别是加入世界贸易组织后,我国货物贸易规模相继超越英国、法国、德国和日本。2009年起,我国连续9年保持货物贸易第一大出口国和第二大进口国地位。2013年起,我国超越美国成为全球货物贸易第一大国,并连续三年保持这一地位。2017年,我国进出口占全球份额为11.5%,货物贸易重回全球第一,其中出口占比为12.8%,进口占比为10.2%;我国也是增长最快的全球主要进口市场,进口增速比美国、德国、日本和全球分别高出8.9、5.5、5.4和5.3个百分点。

(二)货物贸易结构不断优化。

贸易方式更趋合理。改革开放初期,我国在大力开展一般贸易的基础上,采用了来料加工、进料加工等贸易方式,极大地促进了对外贸易的发展,加工贸易占进出口总值的比重由1981年的6%逐步增长到1998年的53.4%。此后,随着我国货物贸易结构的调整和转型升级的推进,加工贸易占比开始缓慢下降。一般贸易占比从2010年起重新超过50%。党的十八大以来,我国着眼于调结构转方式,不断培育外贸竞争新优势,加工贸易占比由2012年的34.8%下降至2017年的29%,一般贸易占比由2012年的52%上升至2017年的56.3%。

产品结构不断优化。改革开放之初,我国出口商品以初级产品为主,在20世纪80年代实现了向工业制成品为主的转变,90年代实现了由轻纺产品为主向机电产品为主的转变,进入21世纪以来,以电子和信息技术为代表的高新技术产品出口占比不断提高,出口商品结构不断优化升级。1978年初级产品出口占53.5%,工业制成品出口占46.5%;到1986年,工业制成品出口比重开始超过初级产品,达到63.6%;2001年起,工业制成品所占比重已超过90%,占据了我国出口商品的绝对主导地位;2017年,工业制成品和初级产品占出口比重分别为94.8%和5.2%。1985年至2017年,我国机电产品出口从16.8亿美元增加到1.3万亿美元,增长785 倍,年均增速达到23.2%,占全球市场的份额升至17%以上,我国已经连续9年保持机电产品全球第一大出口国地位。同期,高新技术产品占我国出口比重从2%左右提高到28.8%。

(三)贸易市场日趋多元。

1978年到2017年,我国的贸易伙伴已由40多个发展到231个国家和地区,其中欧盟、美国、东盟、日本等为我国主要贸易伙伴。自2004年起,欧盟和美国已连续14年位列我国第一和第二大贸易伙伴,2017年中欧、中美贸易额占进出口总额的比重分别为15%和14.2%。我国与新兴市场和发展中国家的贸易持续较快增长,2011年起,东盟超越日本成为我国第三大贸易伙伴,在我国出口市场中的占比从2000年的7%提高到2017年的12.5%。

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