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积极应对化危为机——外贸企业沉着应对贸易摩擦观察

2018年09月02日 19:54来源:网络整理手机版

原标题:积极应对 化危为机——外贸企业沉着应对贸易摩擦观察

善泳者,必搏击风浪方显本领。

今年以来,面对中美经贸摩擦不断升级,外部环境不确定性增加,如何积极应对风险挑战,成为许多外贸企业面临的一道必答题。

记者近日多地采访发现,今年以来外贸保持均衡增长,不少企业面对风浪沉着冷静应对,在苦练内功、优化布局、拥抱开放等方面不断探寻发展新思路。

外贸增势不断稳健

企业是经济运行的晴雨表。

在山东博科生物产业有限公司,面积2000余平方米的医疗器械壳体、体外诊断试剂研发生产区,工作人员正在紧张忙碌。“上半年我们产品销量保持平稳,经贸摩擦没有对企业产生太大影响。”山东博科生物产业有限公司董事长甘宜梧说。

同在东部沿海的民营企业浙江达柏林阀门有限公司也交出了一份亮眼的外贸成绩单:今年前7个月出口收入745万美元,与去年同比相比增长了24.17%。

“手握自主品牌和多元化市场两张牌,我们应对外部挑战信心十足。”外部环境不确定性并未给达柏林董事长林海林带来太多担忧,他对企业今年业绩依然乐观:预计2018年出口能达到1300万美元,占销售收入比重67%。

记者走访中西部地区的企业,不少企业海外贸易逆势增长。在中部制造业重镇湖南,中车株机生产的“火车头”首次出口德国,上半年进出口增幅达52.4%,中联重科进出口额同比增长49.8%……

企业的活力为外贸发展注入澎湃动力:今年前7个月,我国货物贸易进出口总值16.72万亿元人民币,同比增长8.6%,进出口实现较快增长。对欧盟、美国、日本等国家进出口均为增长,特别是对“一带一路”沿线国家进出口增速高于全国整体增速2.7个百分点。

数据再次印证,从“规模扩张”到“质效提升”,我国外贸企业不断练好内功,即便面对复杂多变的国际贸易形势,外贸增势依然不断稳健。

以变应变探寻破局新思路

变中求生是状态。

外部环境多变,增长业绩却不凡。外贸稳中有增的背后,是一系列企业技术之变、市场之变、产业链之变得到有效应对。

——技术之变

记者发现,面对美国对中国输美产品加征关税,一些中国企业却并不慌,因为过硬的产品让美国客户无法拒绝,甚至愿意主动帮助消化关税带来的成本上涨。

专注机械制造业的山东潍坊豪迈集团,创业23年来,年复合增长率达到50%,技术创新和研发不断加速如今已成长为轮胎模具、气门芯两个行业的世界冠军。其对外出口的轮胎模具和燃气轮机都在美国此次对华加征关税清单内。“加征25%关税后,美国客户愿意多掏20%关税,我们承担5%,对企业影响有限。”集团董事长张恭运说。

——市场之变

面对多变的市场形势, 红桥区委员会,开拓多元化市场是不少企业站稳脚跟的法宝。

在我国东南沿海的一家合资公司负责人告诉记者,公司生产的汽车零配件就在美国对中国340亿美元商品征税清单中。“一方面,我们将加大国内市场开拓力度,计划今年起每年国内产品销售增长30%,同时,将积极开拓美国以外的市场,扩大对周边国家出口。”

其实,多元化市场布局并非企业应对风险的临时起意,不少企业从一开始瞄准全球市场,就做好了抵御风险的准备。“鸡蛋都放在一个篮子里风险太大,我们的业务遍布全球112个国家和地区,而且产品标准的统一让我们能够在全球做到客户分散。”林海林说。

——产业链之变

加大研发力度,向产业链中高端迈进成为不少企业提前布局的应对之策。豪迈集团早在几年前就开始在高端零部件加工制造的基础上,向先进的化工装备和海洋油气装备领域进军,新领域所蕴藏的更大发展空间让企业对未来发展充满信心。

明硕电脑(苏州)有限公司上半年实现进出口80多亿美元,同比增幅超过25%。公司关务经理谢军说,公司通过增加研发设计环节拉长产业链条,保持在电脑、网络宽带、多媒体终端及智能手机等领域的国际市场份额。

以更开放姿态应对挑战

风雨兼程是常态。

向外看,历经金融危机等外部风险冲击,我国的外贸企业特别是民营企业,已逐渐培养出应对风险的能力,加强研发创新、培养自主品牌、分散出口市场……如同雨后彩虹,在经历考验中不断锻造成长,在困境中闯关夺隘。

采访中,记者了解到,一些中小企业因为产品竞争力不强、市场较为单一等原因,商联网,面临着严峻的出口形势,甚至濒临关门的风险。一些企业尽管目前还未受到贸易摩擦影响,但也做好了应对美国更大一轮加征关税可能带来的影响。

“外部环境就像三月的天,说变就变。应对变化最好的办法就是把自己做大做强,做好自主品牌战略,让自己的产品做到不可替代。”林海林说。

经过近些年调整,中国经济增长模式不断优化,从投资出口拉动转向以消费为主的较为均衡的拉动,对外贸的依存度不断降低,目前下降到33%,低于42%的世界平均水平。

发展国内市场并不意味着减少与外部市场的联系。多家企业负责人表示,应对外部多变的环境,更要有开放意识,积极参与“一带一路”建设,主动拓展与其他国家和地区的经贸联系,更好地融入全球生产和分工体系。

“国际化是未来企业做大做强的必经之路。未来3年,我们将计划在‘一带一路’沿线主要国家建立办事处,并且加大对美国市场的投入。”甘宜梧说。(记者于佳欣、韩洁、刘巍巍、魏董华)

(责编:杨曦、仝宗莉)

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