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在台湾循环经济是门好生意(说台湾)

2018年08月25日 16:28来源:网络整理手机版

在台湾循环经济是门好生意(说台湾)

  循环经济示意图。
  (资料图片)

在台湾循环经济是门好生意(说台湾)

  在循环经济中,旅行社,当产品“寿终正寝”失去原先功能时,并不代表生命的结束,而是另一种用途的开始。
  (资料图片)

  “想象一下在樱花园中,当满树的花瓣飘落在地,没有人会把它们捡起来扔进垃圾桶。因为这些落樱并非没有价值的废弃物,而是能回归土壤孕育生命,板报网,重回大自然的循环中。”台湾“环保署”前顾问洪荣勋博士以樱花为例,向记者讲解何为循环经济。“在循环经济的概念里,当产品‘寿终正寝’失去原先功能,并不代表生命的结束,而是另一种用途的开始。”

  废弃物?不存在的

  循环经济的概念专业而抽象,洪荣勋尝试用我们熟知的生活案例来剖析。“我问过很多人,你的手机用了多久了?大部分人的答案是不到2年,还有少数不到3年,用了3年以上的极少极少。”

  这就是海量电子垃圾的来源之一。一部不到200克的手机,先在工厂里消耗了近2公斤的资源才被生产出来,而与主人相伴不到2年,就被当做废弃物扔进垃圾场。原料—制造—使用—废弃,传统的线性经济对资源利用率太低,成本太高。

  而在循环经济的概念里,产品使用完之后,所有部分都是可以再回收利用的,再不存在废弃物的概念。

  还是以手机为例。一部手机包含显示屏、玻璃、塑料面板、电路中的贵金属等,完好的显示屏和玻璃可以用于维修,塑料部分可以回收再生产,电路板中的金银铂等贵金属可以通过化学工艺分离提炼。“目前台湾每年手机回收量约180万部,大约可提炼90公斤重的黄金。若从金矿提炼,需要250倍重的金矿才能得到。”洪荣勋说。不少台湾企业以此为切入口得到快速发展,佳龙、金益鼎等专业回收公司甚至已成功上市上柜。

  怎么做?慢慢摸索

  早年间,垃圾在台湾并不是宝贝,垃圾处理也是一个令人头疼的社会问题。洪荣勋给记者播放了一段上世纪80年代的台湾影片,画面中,各地垃圾无处可去,如山般堆积在街道中央,既恶心又可怕。“台湾垃圾多到地底埋不下,有人想出把垃圾偷运到东南亚的做法,结果被当地政府发现,垃圾又被如数挖出来装进集装箱送回台湾,非常丢脸。”洪荣勋从那时起便参与台湾垃圾治理,限制塑料使用、减少一次性用品、垃圾不落地、随袋征收垃圾费、强制分类、资源回收、厨余回收,政策效果逐渐显现。

  2000年,台湾一年会产生787.5万吨垃圾,到2015年,已减少为323.6万吨。而且垃圾的资源回收率比例逐年提高,2015年全台湾的资源回收率达到55%,台北市和新北市的资源回收率分别高达67%和63.5%,远远高于美国的35%。

  1998年起,台湾环保部门还设立资源回收基金,投入大量财力,鼓励企业和市民回收废弃物。“假设你家有一台旧电视,花200元(新台币,下同)拆解,花100元拉到回收站,结果只能卖250元,那人们就没有回收动力,因为亏本啊。但如果政府再补贴200元,即使你还是不愿意,也一定有人做,因为回收变成可以赚钱的生意了。”洪荣勋说。

  在政策的带动下,塑料回收、电子产品回收、厨余回收都发展成绿色科技产业链。台湾远东新世纪公司以废旧塑料瓶为原料,织出环保速干球衣,俄罗斯世界杯上有16支球队,穿的都是这款产品。台湾连锁咖啡店路易莎与成功大学合作,研发出以咖啡渣混合再生纸浆为原料,制作环保纸杯、纸盒、杯垫的技术,资源再利用回到咖啡厅中。虽然有些还不是严格意义上的循环经济,但已经向前进步很多。

  怕反弹?环保入心

  “循环经济虽然好,但对企业来说,前期需要很大投入,还要经过很多试错,最后不一定能成功。如果某天补贴不发了,会不会企业又走回老路了?”面对记者的疑问,洪荣勋很自信地答:“不会。”

  “台湾回收塑料瓶,最早一个瓶子返5元现金,后来慢慢减到2元、1元、0.5元。当我们决定取消补贴时,很多人提出反对,担心市民不再愿意回收,结果这样的情况并没有发生。因为市民已经养成习惯,环保的观念深入人心。”洪荣勋表示,台湾资源有限,高度依赖进口,98%的能源、90%的矿产、53%的粮食都需仰仗境外输入。只有发展循环经济,从更源头的产品、商业模式与产业链的重新设计做起,让所有资源在封闭的循环中持续应用,改变人们的生活方式,才是台湾的长远发展之道。

  “最近台湾发布了塑料吸管禁令,2020年在餐厅内禁用,2025年全面限用,2030年全面禁用。如果从数字比例来看,塑料袋、塑料杯、塑料吸管等一次性塑料制品在所有塑料用品中占比其实很低。但我们坚持减量的原因,就是为从这里入手,改变人们的生活方式和环保观念。”洪荣勋解释说,让更多企业以生产环保产品为荣,更多市民以使用环保产品为荣,那就是循环经济发展崛起的沃土。

  (本报台北电)

(责编:刘晶(实习生)、樊海旭)

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