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我国水稻分子设计育种取得新进展

2018年09月23日 15:18来源:网络整理手机版

9月18日,国审稻新品种“中科804”现场会在黑龙江省五常市举行。3000亩示范片里,“中科804”在产量、抗稻瘟病、抗倒伏等农艺性状方面表现突出,现场品尝食味与外观品质优异,丰收在即。

中科804和中科发系列水稻新品种是中国科学院遗传与发育生物学研究所李家洋团队成功利用“水稻高产优质性状形成的分子机理及品种设计”理论基础与品种设计理念所育成的标志性品种,实现了高产优质多抗水稻的高效培育。“水稻高产优质性状形成的分子机理及品种设计”研究成果于2017年获国家自然科学奖一等奖,“中科804”作为从科学理论到生产实践的典型范例,将给予品种设计育种研究领域新的启迪,极大推动作物传统育种向高效、精准、定向的分子设计育种转变。

针对东北地区最主要的优质米品种稻花香在生产中所遇到的问题,李家洋团队与中国水稻所钱前研究组、中国科学院北方粳稻分子育种联合中心张国民研究组联合,以优异稻米品质基因、抗倒伏和抗稻瘟病等基因为主线,结合高产及理想株型基因等,运用分子模块设计育种的理念和技术,经过精心设计,育成具有优质、高产、抗稻瘟病和抗倒的“中科804”以及中科发系列粳稻新品种。“中科804”于2017年通过国家审定(国审稻20170080),千龙电影网,另外中科发5号和中科发6号也于2018年通过国家审定。

“‘分子模块设计’就像组装一台电脑。”中国科学院院士李家洋通俗地解释道:“人们想要什么样的水稻,育种专家可以把相关水稻基因模块组合在一起,培育出满足需要的种子,就跟在工厂里生产工业产品一样方便。”与常规育种技术相比,“分子模块设计”技术可对相关品种进行精确改良,实现多个优良基因(性状)的聚合,在苗期即可进行基因型测定,大大缩短品种选育时间,提高效率。

目前,中科804等品种的大面积示范推广工作正在进行。2018年该品种共示范15000多亩,在黑龙江、吉林、辽宁、宁夏、内蒙古和新疆共布置了50多个百亩以上示范片,其中在稻花香主产区核心区域布置了3000亩示范片。与此同时,千龙电影网,李家洋团队在2016年及2017年在江苏沭阳成功举行了利用“分子设计育种”理念培育的“嘉优中科”系列优质高产水稻新品种万亩示范,示范效果显著,今年推广面积达到50万亩以上,根据制种情况明年预期推广面积将超过100万亩。这些成果真正实现了“用得上,有影响”要求,对引领我国品种升级换代具有重要意义。(记者齐芳、张士英)

(责编:丁涛、王政淇)

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