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我国基本经济制度的确立和完善(纪念改革开放四十周年)

2018年09月23日 11:49来源:网络整理手机版

  内容提要:党的十一届三中全会后,我们党带领人民实行改革开放。为了快速发展生产力和商品经济,需要调整所有制结构,调动一切积极因素和各种生产资源。我们坚持公有制为主体、多种所有制经济共同发展,在思想不断解放、理论不断创新、实践不断推进的改革发展过程中确立了社会主义初级阶段基本经济制度。改革开放40年来,我国经济社会发展取得的历史性成就表明,既不搞单一公有制也不搞私有化的中国特色社会主义取得巨大成功。当前,中国特色社会主义进入了新时代,我国社会主要矛盾已经转化为人民日益增长的美好生活需要和不平衡不充分的发展之间的矛盾。解决这一主要矛盾,仍然要坚持和完善社会主义初级阶段基本经济制度。

  在改革开放40年不断推进的理论与实践创新中,确立和完善社会主义初级阶段基本经济制度无疑是一项重大成就。正如李克强同志所指出的,“坚持和完善公有制为主体、多种所有制经济共同发展的基本经济制度,关系巩固和发展中国特色社会主义制度的重要支柱。”不断发展和完善的基本经济制度,对坚持和发展中国特色社会主义、推动我国经济社会持续健康发展发挥着重要作用。

  调整所有制结构,鼓励、支持和引导非公有制经济发展

  1978年,党的十一届三中全会作出把党和国家工作中心转移到经济建设上来、实行改革开放的历史性决策。针对过去把家庭副业、集市贸易等也当作“资本主义尾巴”加以限制的做法,党的十一届三中全会提出,“社员自留地、家庭副业和集市贸易是社会主义经济的必要补充部分”。这为个体经济的发展提供了依据,为调整所有制结构打开了突破口。

  我国的社会主义制度脱胎于生产力极端落后的半殖民地半封建社会。马克思、恩格斯认为,私有制的存在,既是生产力发展的结果,又是生产力发展不够高的结果。在原始社会生产力极端落后的条件下,不可能存在私有制;同样道理,在社会主义社会要以公有制完全取代私有制,必须以生产力高度发展为条件。恩格斯在《共产主义原理》中回答“能不能一下子就把私有制废除”的问题时明确指出,“不,不能,正像不能一下子就把现有的生产力扩大到为实行财产公有所必要的程度一样”。

  党的十一届三中全会后,我们党带领人民实行改革开放,着力发展生产力和提高人民生活水平,这就需要调动一切积极因素和各种生产资源。为此,我们坚持马克思主义和科学社会主义基本原理,立足中国实际,大力调整所有制结构,改变原来“一大二公”的所有制模式,允许非公有制经济发展,既鼓励和引导国内私营经济和个体经济发展,又积极引进外资企业来我国发展。

  我国实行改革开放,是为了解放被传统体制束缚的生产力,需要利用国际国内两个市场、两种资源。为此,既要坚持社会主义公有制的主体地位,发挥国有经济的主导作用,又要实行多种所有制经济共同发展。从一开始只允许个体经济存在与发展,看球直播,到允许私营经济发展,再到鼓励外资的引进与发展;从界定非公有制经济是公有制经济或社会主义经济的“补充”,到强调多种所有制经济共同发展;从实践中的非公有制经济快速发展,到在理论上提出公有制为主体、多种所有制经济共同发展是社会主义初级阶段的基本经济制度,明确“两个毫不动摇”;从市场调节和市场经济概念的提出,到社会主义市场经济体制的确立,再到提出非公有制经济是社会主义市场经济的重要组成部分,这是一个思想不断解放、理论不断创新、实践不断推进的波澜壮阔的改革发展过程。

  社会主义初级阶段基本经济制度的形成和发展

  社会主义初级阶段理论是在非公有制经济发展到一定阶段后提出的。在实践中,非公有制经济的发展在增加供给、满足需要、扩大就业、增加税收、搞活经济等方面发挥了重要作用。但在理论上,还需要突破社会主义与私有制不相容的传统观念,进一步推进思想解放。我们党根据我国生产力落后的国情,提出了社会主义初级阶段理论。这一理论在上世纪80年代初就开始提出。1987年党的十三大报告系统论述我国处于社会主义初级阶段的理论,明确说明了当时的国情:我国10亿多人口,8亿在农村,基本上还是用手工工具搞饭吃,还存在落后于现代水平几十年甚至上百年的工业。还存在大量贫困人口和不少文盲半文盲。与基本国情相联系,进一步阐明我国社会主要矛盾是“人民日益增长的物质文化需要同落后的社会生产之间的矛盾”。解决这一主要矛盾的根本途径,就是大力发展生产力,发展商品经济,利用价值规律和市场调节的作用。为了快速发展生产力和商品经济,就需要进行改革开放,就需要调整所有制结构,既不搞单一公有制,也不搞私有化,而是实行公有制为主体、多种所有制经济共同发展。

  党的十三大报告指出,我们进行的改革,“包括以公有制为主体发展多种所有制经济,以至允许私营经济的存在和发展,都是由社会主义初级阶段生产力的实际状况所决定的”。这里肯定了私营经济的存在和发展,并对其积极作用进行了论述。1997年党的十五大报告提出:“公有制为主体、多种所有制经济共同发展,是我国社会主义初级阶段的一项基本经济制度”“非公有制经济是我国社会主义市场经济的重要组成部分”。党的十八大以来,李克强同志多次对我国基本经济制度作出重要论述,指出实行公有制为主体、多种所有制经济共同发展的基本经济制度,是中国共产党确立的一项大政方针,是中国特色社会主义制度的重要组成部分,也是完善社会主义市场经济体制的必然要求。

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