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浦东新区:制度创新成就跨越式发展(壮阔东方潮奋进新时代——庆祝改革开放40年)

2018年09月23日 03:35来源:网络整理手机版

  新浦东,堪称“高大上”。

  说“高”,上世纪80年代,站在20多米高的东昌路消防塔,就能把浦东尽收眼底。而今,在632米的上海中心面前,421米的金茂大厦也成了“小弟”。

  说“大”,2009年南汇区并入后,浦东新区扩大到1210平方公里,常住人口超过500万,GDP总量正朝万亿元挺进。

  说“取法乎上”,上海的两项国家战略——自由贸易试验区和科创中心建设,核心承载区都在浦东,瞄准的都是国际最高、最好。

  但浦东很清醒,真正的“高大上”,体现在吃透国家使命,坚定不移吃改革饭、走开放路、打创新牌,成为“排头兵中的排头兵、先行者中的先行者”。

  2017年,李克强总书记对上海自贸试验区建设作出重要指示强调,“不负重托和厚望,密切配合、攻坚克难,紧抓制度创新这个核心,主动服务国家战略,工作取得多方面重大进展,一批重要成果复制推广到全国,总体上实现了初衷。”

  牢记党中央重托,“紧抓制度创新这个核心”,便是浦东改革开放之魂。

  走出政策洼地舒适圈,用“三不”赢得先行先试

  30年前,浦东一穷二白,眼巴巴盯着要政策。

  1990年,党中央、国务院宣布开发开放上海浦东,给了减免浦东新区三资企业所得税、允许外资兴建第三产业、增设外资银行等10项政策。1992年,中央给了扩大5类项目的审批权限,增加5个方面的资金筹措渠道。1995年,给了在金融和贸易等领域具有率先推进改革的试点权,甚至允许外资在浦东兴办第三产业,“比特区还特”。

  四两拨千斤,中央政策撬动了浦东冰封的思想。邓小平听取浦东开发规划汇报时说:“希望上海人民思想更解放一点,胆子更大一点,步子更快一点”。

  蛰伏已久的改革动能被激活。

  开放初期,土地、资金、交通捉襟见肘,浦东率先全面推开土地使用权有偿转让,探索形成了政府规范土地一级市场、放开搞活土地二级市场的“资金空转、批租实转、成片开发”的开发模式。多渠道灵活融资,浦东两轮十大基础设施工程建设投资1250多亿元,杨浦大桥、南浦大桥、浦东国际机场、外高桥港区等重大项目顺利展开,浦东、浦西连成一片,拓宽了浦东新区通往世界的大门。

  初尝创新甜头的浦东,努力走出“政策洼地”舒适圈。特别是入世之后,中国加速驶入经济全球化轨道,建立与世贸组织规则相一致的社会主义市场经济运行机制迫在眉睫。

  谢国平,曾任《浦东时报》副主编。据他回忆,有位新区领导看到一份文件,眼前一亮:国家发改委正在研究综合配套改革,要在全国选点。

  那是2004年。一些地方经济改革单兵突进,行政管理体制、社会管理体制改革与经济体制改革发展不平衡、不配套矛盾突出,增强改革的系统性迫在眉睫。

  浦东当仁不让,竭力陈情争取先行先试,承诺“三不”原则:一不要政策,二不要项目,三不要资金。浦东在全国率先获国务院批准,成为综合配套改革试点。

  自我加压的改革底气,让浦东新区顺利通过了国际金融危机冲击和自身发展转型的双重考验,加快形成金融、航运、贸易、先进制造业为重点的产业结构,经济发展活力不断增强。中国金融期货交易所、商用飞机研发和总装制造、华力微电子等机构纷纷落户浦东新区。

  不闯“红灯”,先行先试必须于法有据

  从新区,到综改试点,再到自贸区,“三级跳远”,浦东在破冰式试验中实现跨越式发展。最后的关键一跳,便是党中央为推进新形势下改革开放提出的重大举措——上海自由贸易试验区的制度创新。

  2014年参加全国人大会议上海代表团审议时,李克强总书记强调,建设自由贸易试验区,“要牢牢把握国际通行规则,加快形成与国际投资、贸易通行规则相衔接的基本制度体系和监管模式”。他还要求,“要大胆闯、大胆试、自主改,尽快形成一批可复制、可推广的新制度”。

  负面清单制度,成为依照国际通行规则、建设服务型政府的改革支点。

  有人曾对第一版清单列出190项对外商投资保留的特别管理措施很不屑:这不就是把正面清单反过来点一遍?其实,“非禁即入”的清单推开了一扇门,和从前投资管理体制的封闭之“墙”有本质区别。这是与国际规则体系相衔接迈出的一大步。

  眼下,90%左右的国民经济行业对外资实现了准入前国民待遇。浦东有干部感叹,“负面清单,收了政府的权,活了国家和企业的水”,政府审批制度发生颠覆性改革,确立事中事后监管制度。

  壮士断腕,自我革命——自贸区制度创新最核心的价值,在于政府的自我限权。之后我国设立的一系列自贸区,用的都是源自“浦东样本”的同一张“清单”。

  在2016年普华永道问卷调查中,约六成企业认为“负面清单”使政策更透明、限制更具体。清单未列,企业就可大胆去做,减少了审批者的自由裁量权。

  浦东,从不闯“红灯”。先行先试必须于法有据,才能为改革提供长远制度保障。依法改革、依法创新,成为上海自贸区制度创新最大特色。

  负面清单管理模式,同样得到法律保驾护航。

  国务院提请全国人大常委会审议并通过“关于授权国务院在中国上海自由贸易试验区等国务院决定的试验区域内暂停实施外资、中外合资、中外合作企业设立及变更审批等有关法律规定的决定草案”,上海也制定了《中国(上海)自由贸易试验区条例》,作为地方性立法,将中央给予自贸区的事权固化,为自贸区改革提供法律和制度保障。

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