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“让意大利人爱上中国经典名著”(海客谈神州)

2018年09月19日 19:56来源:网络整理手机版

“让意大利人爱上中国经典名著”(海客谈神州)

  图①:李集雅在华东师范 大学做演讲。
  图②:意大利语版《论语》。
  图③:意大利语版《中庸》。

“让意大利人爱上中国经典名著”(海客谈神州)

  威尼斯大学外景。
  资料图片

  再度联系上意大利威尼斯大学副校长李集雅时,她刚参加完在北京大学举行的第二十四届世界哲学大会返回意大利。

  对于此次全球哲学家相聚中国的盛会,李集雅笑言满载而归。会议期间,她以“如何对待多样性”为题发言,讨论了不同的哲学与宗教是否共享着某些普遍的人文关怀问题。

  “‘思想自由、和而不同、兼容并包、有容乃大’,关于文明之间的对话还有很多工作要做,很多努力正在进行中,北京的此次盛会为世界哲学对话推开了一扇更大的门。”李集雅如是说。

  “中国古典文化越读越有魅力,令人着迷”

  “集大成,通雅俗”,意大利威尼斯大学副校长、亚非研究所教授Tiziana Lippiello为自己取了一个颇有中国韵味的中文名——李集雅。她深谙中国古代文学及哲学,是第一个将中国儒家经典《论语》和《中庸》翻译成意大利语的汉学家。在她的努力下,两本中国经典著作得以在意大利传播开来。

  与李集雅攀谈,笔者不由讶异眼前这位和蔼可亲的学者竟满腹经纶,博览中华文化。当然,还有一口流利的普通话。

  1981年,出于对中国古代思想及文学的兴趣,19岁的李集雅进入威尼斯大学后便开始学习中文,研读中国古代汉语和古代哲学。“中国,于我而言充满着神秘。中国古代文学仿佛是一出梦境,很唯美;中国古代哲学充满着思辨,令我痴迷。”

  “儒家入世、道家出世。儒家讲先天下之忧而忧、道家讲采菊东篱下悠然见南山。”从道家、儒家、墨家到法家,李集雅如数家珍;“孔曰‘成仁’,孟曰‘取义’”,论及老子、孔子、孟子、庄子,她同样娓娓道来。

  1984年,李集雅远赴复旦大学求学。在上海,她接触到了真实的中国,“所有对中国的想象在那些年间一一变成眼前的现实,让我喜出望外。”复旦的留学时光让李集雅终生难忘。

  也是在上海,李集雅开始研读庄子,从此爱不释手,“北冥有鱼,其名为鲲。鲲之大,不知其几千里也;化而为鸟,其名为鹏……”“庄子的《逍遥游》一文纵横驰骋、浩荡跌宕,文中寓言奇幻无比而又形象逼真,并寓哲理于离奇的想象和形象的描写之中。庄子的美文超越了时间和空间,实现了‘逍遥’的人生观,多么令人向往啊。中国古代有很多文学作品都是如此,非常棒。”

  “中国古典文化越读越有魅力,令人着迷。对于中国发展而言,古典文化一直是非常重要的组成部分,是国家文化的主要支柱和重要精髓!”深爱中国古代文学及哲学的李集雅,在荷兰莱顿大学完成博士学位后选择回到威尼斯大学,在这所语言文学专业有悠久传统的名校执起了中国文化的教鞭。

  翻译中华古籍,让更多意大利人了解中国

  李集雅谈道,早在12世纪,当时的意大利共和国,尤其是威尼斯和热那亚,已经开始与东方频繁持续地交往。“2000多年前,位于欧亚大陆两端的两个文明古国,被一条丝绸之路连接起来。如今,中国和意大利之间的往来更加络绎不绝,包括文化交流。”

  李集雅长年研究古代中国与古代西方的文化联系。她认为,虽然从表面上看,中国古典文化和同一时期的西方文化相去甚远,但实际上,东西方文化曾经有过深入的交流,中国古代自然哲学与西方基督教神学的某些观点,都值得深入研究。

  说到中西方古典文化的联系,利玛窦不得不提,物流网,他是第一位集欧洲文艺复兴时期诸种学艺与中国四书五经等古典学问于一身的巨人。“他不但完成了《四书》的翻译,并让中国传统经典得以漂洋过海,来到欧洲。”说起利玛窦,李集雅滔滔不绝,利玛窦向中国人民介绍了西方的科学和文化,并在中国文化研究上颇有建树,增进了中西双方的友好交流。

  对于中国与西方这段不解的缘分,李集雅格外珍视,“‘尔为吾之真友,则爱我以情,不爱以物也’,利玛窦对这份友谊有着独到的见解。中国与意大利,在历史的交往当中建立了深厚的友谊,通过交流合作共同促进着世界的发展。”

  在参阅群书的研究基础上,李集雅投入多年时间和精力,将《论语》和《中庸》这两本中国人读来尚有困难的古籍翻译成了意大利语。“悠久灿烂的中国文化,令意大利人的求知兴趣与日俱增,中国风和汉语热近年来在意大利持续升温。之所以将越来越多的中国古籍翻译成意大利语,我就是希望意大利公众能够更深入地理解中国人的思想。比如,阅读《四书》《五经》,有助于理解中国人的思想、行为和道德观等;读《庄子》,可以了解中国人是如何看待人与自然及宇宙的关系。我希望能让意大利人爱上中国经典名著。”

  与北京大学等建立密切联系,推动多元文化发展

  威尼斯大学在中国语言和文化研究方面有着悠久的传统,其汉语研究和教学规模已跃居意大利第一、欧洲第二。“我的学生都非常喜欢中国文化,学习中文的兴趣是潜滋暗长、慢慢扎根的一个过程。培养学生,我们安排了跨学科课程,让学生在学习汉语的同时,也能涉猎到中国的历史、哲学、艺术、法律和经济。威尼斯大学中国文学的教学丰富性在意大利乃至欧洲都是首屈一指的。”

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