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解读中东欧“文学密码”(旅人心语)

2018年09月19日 17:04来源:网络整理手机版

  中东欧虽然是个地理概念,但在我心目中还是一个文学概念。赫赫有名的文学家、作家不胜枚举,捷克的卡夫卡、昆德拉,波兰的米沃什、辛波斯卡,匈牙利的马洛伊和凯尔泰斯……相似的国家历史、相近的语言文化、相通的民族情感,让中东欧文学呈现出一种独特的浪漫而又悲悯的气质,屹立于世界文学之林。

  文艺是中东欧文学的关键词。无论是波澜壮阔的多瑙河,还是群山跌宕的巴尔干;无论是潮平岸阔的布达佩斯,还是黄墙红瓦的布拉格,中东欧文学诞生的这块土地充满了神秘和戏剧性,惠来网,是无数文艺青年梦寐以求的佳境胜地。卡夫卡、哈维尔、德沃夏克,把这些名字汇到一起,就是中东欧地区辉煌灿烂的文学名片。

  深情是中东欧文学的注脚。中东欧国家华丽的文学家族谱中,大多数是厚重而文艺的小说家、诗人、散文家。中东欧各国的人民对他们的文学巨匠也是充满了热情。有一次我在火车上,遇到一位学中文的波兰女孩,她手里带了一本辛波斯卡的《万物静默如谜》中译本。我问她为什么选择这本书,她说读懂了诗歌才能读懂一个国家,她想知道中国人有没有读懂波兰。

  归属感是中东欧文学的原动力。中东欧的民族和国家的历史复杂多元,虽然今天中东欧国家多是单一民族国家,但历史的层累却讲述着一个个不同的故事。在保加利亚首都索非亚,罗马时期的遗址、奥斯曼时期的建筑、苏联时期的雕塑就在市中心一层层地堆在一起,千龙电影网,奇异而又和谐。在民族国家形成的不算长的历史中,追问个人的身份和归属感,包括文化和人性归属,是中东欧文学永恒的母题。即使在今天,当欧洲难民危机汹涌袭来之时,在大国在这一地区的互相角力中,中东欧依然面临着相似的问题和困惑,也反映在当下的文学和艺术作品的创作之中。

  在中东欧众多文学巨匠中,有一位内向而自省的作家独树一帜,他就是波兰著名的驻外记者卡普钦斯基。卡普钦斯基曾是波兰通讯社的驻外记者,做实习生时由于对边境民众的生活感兴趣,结果一工作就被通讯社派到了印度和中国,并先后在亚洲、非洲、拉丁美洲地区任驻外记者达40多年。如果没有驻外经历,他可能会成为那个时代典型的波兰人,或者一个普通的波兰记者。在他最后一部著作《与希罗多德一起旅行》中,卡普钦斯基说:“我们应该走出去探索,别的文化是我们的一面镜子,可以照见我们自己,为的是使我们自己更好地了解自己。”卡式的这本小书,我一直带在身边。


  《 人民日报 》( 2018年09月16日 07 版)

(责编:冯粒、袁勃)

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