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日托米尔人的骄傲

2018年09月19日 15:31来源:网络整理手机版

  谢尔盖·帕夫洛维奇·科罗廖夫是苏联著名火箭和航天系统总设计师,被称为苏联航天事业的奠基人。世界第一枚洲际弹道导弹、第一颗人造地球卫星、第一艘载人航天飞船、第一次太空行走、第一个月球探测器、第一个金星探测器、第一个火星探测器等一系列人类航天纪录都与他的名字紧密相连。

  1907年1月12日,科罗廖夫出生于乌克兰中部的日托米尔市。在日托米尔,以科罗廖夫命名的航天博物馆是当地最著名的景点。航天博物馆由科罗廖夫童年生活过的故居和航天科技展厅两部分组成,保存着大量有关科罗廖夫生平和科学贡献的实物、照片、资料等珍贵藏品。

  在苏美太空争霸的年代,科罗廖夫的名字被苏联政府严格保密。因此,科罗廖夫在世时,日托米尔人并不知道这位航天天才就出生于此。1966年1月14日,积劳成疾的科罗廖夫与世长辞,宅福利,他的名字才被公之于众。日托米尔人为自己的城市诞生了苏联宇航事业的伟大设计师与组织者而倍感自豪。在科罗廖夫的母亲——玛丽亚·巴拉宁娜的帮助下,当地人按照科罗廖夫童年生活时的场景恢复了其故居布局。

  1970年8月1日,82岁高龄的巴拉宁娜从莫斯科回到日托米尔,出席科罗廖夫故居落成仪式。1906年,科罗廖夫父母从乌克兰涅任市迁居到日托米尔,租住于此。故居由前厅、客厅、卧室和厨房4间屋子组成,其中的装饰柜、挂钟、缝纫机等都是当年的实物。科罗廖夫的父亲在当地中学任教,母亲也接受过良好教育,屋里的书架、藏书和钢琴都散发出知识分子家庭的气息。尽管科罗廖夫在这里只生活了不到两年时间,但对日托米尔人来说,这足以令他们永远为之骄傲。

  纳塔利娅·谢尔巴科娃在科罗廖夫故居担任讲解员已经30多年。谈及天赋异禀、才华过人的科罗廖夫,谢尔巴科娃如数家珍。1922年,科罗廖夫考入敖德萨建筑职业学校,富于幻想的他却对飞行产生了浓厚兴趣,便加入当地飞行协会,参加滑翔运动小组活动。青年时代的科罗廖夫就渴望制造出自己设计的滑翔机。他开始自修高等数学,并在继父帮助下学习制图。努力没有白费,凭借出众的才华,科罗廖夫先后进入基辅工学院和莫斯科鲍曼高等技术学校这两所名校学习,开启了其科学探索之旅。

  1929年,科罗廖夫拜访了现代航天学和火箭理论的奠基人齐奥尔科夫斯基,这成为他人生中一个重要转折点。由此,科罗廖夫的兴趣从航空发明转向太空探索,并很快展示出过人的天赋。1933年,科罗廖夫带领由太空爱好者组成的“反作用运动研究小组”将苏联第一枚液体火箭送上400米的高空,河南日报,将火箭技术从幻想变为现实,开启了整个苏联波澜壮阔的航天事业征程。彼时,科罗廖夫年仅26岁。

  1991年,日托米尔人在科罗廖夫故居对面修建了占地约850平方米的航天科技展厅,共同组成现在的航天博物馆。博物馆每年吸引超过10万名世界各地的参观者,其中不乏不远万里专程来拜谒的航天迷。每年1月12日科罗廖夫诞辰日,以及4月12日世界航天日,日托米尔市都要举行盛大活动,隆重纪念科罗廖夫。科罗廖夫的名字已深深融入这座城市的血脉:日托米尔州政府前的广场以科罗廖夫命名,那里矗立着这位航天巨擘的雕像;城市里有科罗廖夫大街、科罗廖夫行政区、科罗廖夫军事学院……笔者从乌克兰首都基辅驱车前往日托米尔,在基辅州与日托米尔州交界处便看到一座火箭造型的纪念碑,上面醒目地写着“日托米尔——科罗廖夫的故乡”。不仅如此,日托米尔甚至还有以科罗廖夫命名的酒吧,酒吧墙壁上挂着不少科罗廖夫的照片,酒吧菜单上印有纪念科罗廖夫的海报和邮票等图案。

  参观完科罗廖夫故居时,讲解员谢尔巴科娃对笔者对其家乡名人产生如此浓厚兴趣深表谢意。谢尔巴科娃说,她一直都在关注中国神舟飞船的发展,中国的航天事业近年来取得惊人的成就。谢尔巴科娃认为,科罗廖夫之所以成功,很重要的一点源自于他少年时代对飞行的强烈兴趣。因此,航天博物馆的一个重要职能就是向青少年普及航天知识,激发他们探索太空的兴趣。在航天科普方面,乌克兰与中国已经开始合作,2017年该馆参加了在中国北京举办的“一带一路”科普场馆发展论坛。“希望乌中两国科普领域的合作能够为两国共同培养科技人才做出贡献!”临别时,谢尔巴科娃向笔者道出这样的心愿。


  《 人民日报 》( 2018年09月16日 07 版)

(责编:冯粒、袁勃)

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