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在斯里兰卡寻访“海丝”印记(海外纪闻)

2018年09月19日 07:33来源:网络整理手机版

  在斯里兰卡首都科伦坡的名刹古寺刚噶拉马寺,记者竟意外地“遇见”一尊巍然耸立的关公像。雕像表面有岁月斑驳的痕迹,但依然面相庄严,魁梧雄壮。

  印度洋岛国斯里兰卡,古称狮子国,又名师子国、僧伽罗、锡兰等。这个在中国古籍中反复出现的国家,位于亚欧航线的中点,是海上丝绸之路的“东西方十字路口”。记者日前来到这里,寻访千年“海丝”留下的文明印记。

  玉佛轮回

  1600多年前,斯里兰卡国王得悉东晋孝武帝崇奉佛教,特派遣使者渡海送来一尊四尺二寸高玉佛像。这尊原供奉在南京瓦官寺的佛像,本是中国与斯里兰卡友好交往的见证,可惜已经失传。

  如今,一尊来自中国的白色玉佛跨越重洋,出现在斯里兰卡刚噶拉马寺的庭院里。玉佛旁的文字介绍说,这尊大玉佛,连同佛龛重48吨,由福建泉州商人于2015年底捐赠给寺庙,出自福建工艺美术大师孙文宏之手。

  生长在泉州的孙文宏用艺术接续绵延“海上丝绸之路”记忆。他说:我把雕刻作品带到“海丝”沿线国家,就像古代泉州的船只把瓷器、茶叶带到斯里兰卡,又从那里带回当地的物产。

  意大利旅行家马可·波罗和摩洛哥旅行家伊本·白图泰都记录了泉州港的繁华,认为它是当时世界最大的港口之一。与泉州的辉煌遥相呼应,斯里兰卡作为商船往来于东亚与南亚、中东和欧洲的必经之地,也繁盛一时。

  今天,随着“21世纪海上丝绸之路”的兴起,斯里兰卡等沿线国家迎来了新的发展机遇。

  郑和遗碑

  斯里兰卡国家博物馆4号展厅里,来自中国的游客在一块字迹模糊的石碑前啧啧称奇。人们熟知郑和下西洋的事迹,但很少有人知道,郑和船队曾多次停靠斯里兰卡,还在这里留下了一块石碑。

  公元1405年至1433年,郑和率领庞大的舰队七次下西洋,先后出访了东南亚、南亚、西亚及东非的30多个国家和地区,创造了世界航海史上的奇迹。

  斯里兰卡考古专家查迪玛说,七下西洋的28年间,郑和在海外多地立碑,但被发现并保存至今的独此一块。它是郑和下西洋这一壮举的最真实的历史见证。

  石碑不到一人高,有二龙戏珠的浮雕和花纹,碑上的汉字依稀可辨,写着“大明皇帝遣太监郑和王贵通等昭告于佛世尊……”左上的泰米尔文、左下的波斯文损毁较为严重。

  据悉,这块“布施锡兰山佛寺碑”是公元1409年郑和下西洋前,在南京刻好,然后随船带到斯里兰卡的,分别用三种语言表示对佛教、印度教和伊斯兰教的颂扬和敬献。

  查迪玛说:“石碑表达了对三种宗教的礼敬与尊重,体现了当时中国所具有的宽广胸怀和世界眼光,这也是为什么郑和七下西洋能够成功的重要原因之一。”

  如今,一支来自上海博物馆的考古队,正在斯里兰卡发掘古代遗址,寻找、研究斯里兰卡的“海丝”史迹。这支考古队的领队、上海博物馆考古研究部主任陈杰说,除了郑和碑,斯里兰卡还有很多中国文物,尤其是很多中国瓷器的面纱还没有被真正揭开。

  法显足迹

  东晋僧人法显抵达斯里兰卡,比郑和还要早一千年。公元399年,他以65岁的高龄从长安出发,历经艰险西行至天竺(古代印度)取经。10年后,千龙电影网,他从印度南部乘船抵达斯里兰卡。

  笃信佛教的斯里兰卡人崇敬法显不畏艰险、一心求法的精神,把法显栖身过的岩洞叫做“法显石洞”,以香火供奉。法显石洞位于科伦坡以南50公里的一座山的腰间,宽、高约50米,径深8米,是斯里兰卡最大的岩洞。

  石洞所在的山脚下,就是斯中友谊村。上世纪80年代,为纪念法显,中国政府在此援建数百套民居,后来便形成了这座村庄。村口竖着一块纪念碑,用僧伽罗文、中文和英文3种文字记录两国的友谊。

  法显在斯里兰卡家喻户晓,还因为他写的《佛国记》(又名《法显传》)记录了1600年前当地风土人情,成为见证斯里兰卡历史的重要史料。据他记载,各国商人往来居住在斯里兰卡,使这里成为乐土,吸引更多人前来定居,于是发展成为大国。可见,斯里兰卡的命运,从古至今都与海上贸易紧密相连。

  近八旬的法显乘坐商船回国,于公元412年在今天的山东崂山附近登陆。从65岁启程,到78岁回国,其间,他由陆上丝绸之路西行取经,游历沿途众多国家,又取道海上丝绸之路归国,成为有据可查的走通陆上、海上丝绸之路第一人。

  法显走通海陆两条丝绸之路,经历了常人难以想象的艰辛。如今的丝绸之路,正在变成一条光明坦途。越来越多国家响应、参与“一带一路”建设,素材信息,沿线交通更加畅通便利,经济联系更加紧密,文化旅游和民间交往日益频繁,丝绸之路正呈现出一派欣欣向荣的复兴气象。

  (据新华社科伦坡电 记者杨定都)

(责编:杨牧、刘洁妍)

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