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谈判无果而终英法“扇贝战”祸起“脱欧”

2018年09月18日 23:51来源:网络整理手机版

英国和法国为化解两国渔民在诺曼底附近海域捕捞扇贝冲突的谈判本周无果而终。

今年夏天已到尾声,镇平县党校,英法之间这场“扇贝战争”却可能延续到英国明年3月正式退出欧洲联盟后的多个夏天。英国媒体分析,正是日益临近的“脱欧”加剧了两国渔业矛盾。

【协商未果】

法国农业和食品部长斯特凡纳·特拉韦尔12日声明,法英两国未能达成夏季扇贝捕捞协议。他上周警告,假如两国渔民再发生冲突,法国海军随时准备介入。

英国环境、食品与农村事务部同一天发表声明,表达“失望”,强调“英国政府首要考虑确保英国船只的安全……假如英方船只在法律允许的法国海域内捕捞,法国政府有责任保证它们的安全”。

英法渔业代表本月初曾达成一份框架协议,就15米以上渔船捕捞作业达成一致,但未能就较小型渔船相关条款达成共识。

按法国国家渔业委员会的说法,英方提出英方在法国休渔期停止捕捞应获得补偿,要价“过高”;法方11日拿出“最终”方案,要求英方12日作出回应,英方甚至“懒得答复”。

【“近身肉搏”】

英法媒体戏称这场冲突为“扇贝战争”。它的爆发地位于法国北部塞内湾、诺曼底海岸附近海面。这片海域生产肥美的扇贝,因此成为英法渔民争抢的“地盘”。

8月27日至28日,英国渔民驾着捕捞扇贝的船只到达这片海域,遭遇法国几十艘渔船围堵,法方向英方船只投掷石块和烟雾弹,英方立即反击。双方渔船甚至“近身肉搏”,相互冲撞。

法国渔民自认“占理”:他们指认一些英国渔船越过12海里的领海界限,进入法国水域捕捞,属“强盗”行为;另一方面,他们认为法国为保育海产设有休渔期限制,法国渔民只能在每年10月至次年5月期间进入英吉利海峡捕捞扇贝,而英国渔民却不受这种限制,十分不公。

【“脱欧”搓火】

这场“扇贝战争”发生在英国“脱欧”准备期,也是英国与欧盟就未来英欧经贸关系谈判的关键期、敏感期,渔业和特定水域准入条件对英国政府而言是谈判重点议题。英国媒体在报道“扇贝战争”时普遍与“脱欧”挂钩。

英国渔民普遍支持“脱欧”,他们希望英国退出欧盟后,英国人可以拿回“自己的水域”和“自己的鱼”。英国“脱欧”后,欧盟国家将失去在英国水域捕鱼的权利,如果它们想继续分享英国丰富的渔业资源,需要与英国重新签订渔业协议。英国渔民觉得,“脱欧”将让英国渔民在与欧洲他国渔民的关系中“扬眉吐气”。

英国一个名为“渔业支持脱欧”组织发表声明,显露这种借“脱欧”掌握主动权的意愿:“如果法国人想在‘脱欧’后和英国达成一份渔业协议,那么他们应该管好自己的事,而不是(对英国渔民)施以暴力和威胁。”

一些英国媒体分析,不断迫近的“脱欧”让英国渔民的“底气”和“火气”都不断增加,这才有了“扇贝战争”。

【历史回声】

英法渔民就同一海域捕捞权利的争斗早有渊源。英国媒体考证出,早在1815年拿破仑战争结束时,双方就发生过纠纷。

最近一次较大规模冲突发生在2012年。当时英国渔船遭法国渔船围堵,不得不向英国海军求助。双方随后经谈判达成非正式协议,允许英国小型渔船在法方休渔期进入这片海域捕捞扇贝。但今年起,法国渔民开始要求英方小型渔船在法方休渔期停止打捞,寻求“对等”待遇。

1958年至1976年间,河南日报,冰岛与英国发生三次“鳕鱼战争”,起因是冰岛人担心本国赖以生存的鳕鱼资源在英国人狂捕滥捞中破坏殆尽,不惜“硬杠”国力明显高出一筹的英国。双方最终谈判结果是冰岛宣布200海里的“禁渔区”,由此发展出的200海里专属经济区概念随后得到国际社会普遍承认。

不知道这次“扇贝战争”将在历史上留下何种印记。(桂涛)(新华社专特稿)

(责编:刘洁妍、杨牧)

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