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难民危机持续困扰欧洲(国际视点)

2018年09月18日 11:06来源:网络整理手机版

  今年以来,尽管涌入欧洲的难民人数得到初步控制,但难民危机却远未平息。欧盟各成员国围绕难民配额分配、责任分摊等问题陷入争吵;一些极右翼或民粹主义政党用“反移民牌”赢得选民支持,不断挑战和冲击传统主流政党。自欧洲难民危机爆发以来,位于南部欧洲的意大利、西班牙和希腊成为大量难民抵达欧盟的第一站,持续涌入的难民让三国头痛不已。面对欧盟各成员国在难民问题上的矛盾,欧盟在弥合分歧、化解难民危机方面显得“力不从心”。

        

  缓解难民危机,提高财政补贴收效甚微

  9月13日,德国宣布与意大利在难民问题上取得突破,双方就签署难民返还协议达成一致。协议规定,今后德国将有权把在德国与奥地利边境截获的所谓“二次移民”(已在意大利登记过避难申请的难民)遣送回意大利。作为交换条件,德国每遣送一人回意大利,便有义务从意大利接收一名其从海上救起的新难民。此前,德国已经与希腊和西班牙达成了内容相近的协议。

  为了“说服”各国接收难民,欧盟委员会今年7月提议为自愿接收难民的成员国提供一系列财政激励措施,以促进各成员国共同分担难民压力。其中一项激励措施为,各成员国每接收一名难民,可获得6000欧元的补助。

  虽然欧盟不断提高财政补贴,希冀暂时缓解难民危机,实际情况收效甚微。欧盟“庇护、移民和融合基金”及“内部安全基金”已就难民问题向意大利划拨逾6.5亿欧元。然而,意大利并不买账,在与欧盟的谈判过程中多次威胁,如果欧盟无法“分流”被解救的难民,他们将抵制欧盟在地中海应对难民的行动,禁止欧盟将难民带到意大利港口。

  在难民问题上的僵持和困局,凸显了欧盟在该问题上的“力不从心”。西班牙首相桑切斯与德国总理默克尔上个月在西班牙南部举行非正式会晤时就表示,在难民的遣返和分配问题上,欧盟应目标一致,携手解决难民问题。

  欧盟提出在境外设置难民中心的提议,以管控难民涌入,但遭到利比亚等国政府的回绝。意大利内政部长萨尔维尼多次重申:“欧盟应该站出来,团结一致开放港口,否则的话欧盟就没有存在的必要了。”

  难民大量涌入,商联网,多国难民营“人满为患”

  希腊官方发布的数据显示,截至9月12日,滞留在希腊5座爱琴海岛屿上的难民总数首次突破2万人。海岛上的难民营人满为患,其中,接纳能力为3100人的莱斯沃斯岛穆利亚难民营住进了8800人,接纳能力为600多人的萨摩斯岛瓦提难民营拥挤着近4000人。

  严重超员使得本就条件艰苦的难民营秩序更为混乱、难民不满情绪不断升温,给希腊社会治安造成越来越大的安全隐患。一项针对滞留希腊海岛难民的民调结果显示,近半数受访难民对自身处境感到担忧,认为安全和卫生隐患的存在带给他们巨大的心理压力。难民营除了空间、资源和服务缺口巨大外,医护人员和药品短缺的问题也日益突出,面临着巨大的疫情隐患。

  在希腊和意大利等国对非法移民不断加强防控、大批难民偷渡受阻的情况下,西班牙已成为难民和非法移民进入欧洲的主要门户。国际移民组织日前发布的数据显示,截至9月9日,今年已经有近7.4万名非法移民通过海路涌入欧洲,其中,约3.2万名非法移民在西班牙登陆,占到了总数的43%。

  随着非法移民人数的增多,西班牙南部的安达卢西亚自治区多座城市的非法移民和难民接待安置设施已经人满为患、不堪重负。西班牙全国无人看护的非法移民儿童数量已超过1万人,而仅安达卢西亚自治区就超过4000人。为此,安达卢西亚自治区政府近日也向西班牙政府请求更多资金支持,以更新扩充当地接待设施,同时将无人看护的非法移民儿童分摊至其他自治区。此外,非法移民的大量涌入也对西班牙城市治安、反恐等造成压力。

  面对国内压力,各国对难民渐趋强硬

  自6月新一届政府上台以来,意大利政府持续收紧难民政策,下令各大港口拒绝难民救援船靠岸,对待难民问题的态度渐趋强硬。今年6月及8月,意大利政府因为难民接收问题与马耳他、法国等进行了多次“口水战”。意大利接收难民的数量近几个月来明显减少。根据联合国难民署的数据,截至8月初,意大利今年共接纳难民近2万名,仅相当于去年同期人数的20%。

  萨尔维尼表示,政府对待难民的强硬立场是为了捍卫边境、保护国家安全,维护国家和人民的利益,零启互联,“不能把意大利变成一个巨大的难民营”。民调数据显示,超过60%的意大利民众赞成意大利政府对于难民的强硬立场,57%的受访者支持政府在此问题上的一系列举措。

  西班牙政府对于难民的宽松和人道主义态度起初受到了国内舆论的支持,但是随着难民人数的增长,不仅其政策受到了反对党的指责,民众和舆论的压力也越来越大,西班牙政府对于难民问题的态度也出现了转向的趋势。

  8月22日,116名非法移民从摩洛哥翻越边界铁丝网进入位于北非的西班牙飞地休达一侧,并同西班牙国民警卫队发生暴力冲突。西班牙政府在24小时内就将这批非法移民遣返至摩洛哥,并表示“将对这种暴力越界方式采取强硬手段”。8月底,西班牙警方逮捕了今年7月同样从摩洛哥翻越边界铁丝网进入休达一侧西班牙领土的602名非法移民中的10人,认为他们组织了这次暴力集体翻越事件,其中2人被判刑入狱。

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