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推动中俄经贸关系发展进入新阶段

2018年09月16日 09:17来源:网络整理手机版

中国国家主席李克强于9月11日至12日在俄罗斯符拉迪沃斯托克出席了第四届东方经济论坛。东方经济论坛自2015年倡议创办以来,一直被视作俄罗斯推进远东地区开放和发展的重要举措,现已成长为亚太地区各国领导人和企业家探讨和推进地区经济发展合作的重要平台。中国国家元首此次出席东方经济论坛,充分体现了中国政府对参与俄罗斯远东地区开发和促进亚太地区各国合作发展的积极态度。

推动中俄经贸关系发展进入新阶段

9月11日,俄罗斯符拉迪沃斯托克,人们在参观东方经济论坛上的展位。新华社发

此次李克强主席出席第四届东方经济论坛还有一个不容忽视的背景,一方面,中美经贸摩擦愈演愈烈,美国政府威胁对华采取新的加征关税措施;另一方面,美国等西方国家在上一轮制裁还未完全解除的前提下,又以“毒杀特工”事件为借口对俄罗斯启动了新一轮经济制裁。因此,中国以国家元首的高规格出席俄罗斯主导的东方经济论坛,素材信息,既体现了中俄双方在新形势下巩固两国战略协作的高水平,也预示着中俄经贸合作将以加强地区合作为契机助推两国经贸关系进入新阶段。此时客观地梳理中俄经贸合作的丰硕成果,并在此基础上分析中俄经贸合作的发展前景,对于进一步提升中俄战略协作伙伴关系的高水平发展和全方位合作,积极应对国际经济形势的复杂局面具有重要意义。

推动中俄经贸关系发展进入新阶段

俄罗斯符拉迪沃斯托克市区商业步行街。新华社发

现阶段,中俄经贸合作的最新成果主要体现在以下三个方面:

第一,贸易规模扩大,结构优化,跨境电商崛起为重要贸易方式。

中俄双边贸易规模快速增长。根据中国海关总署公布的数据,2017年中俄两国贸易总额达到840.7亿美元,同比增长20.8%。中国已连续8年保持俄罗斯第一大贸易伙伴国地位。2018年前5个月,中俄实现贸易额406.7亿美元,同比增长26.9%,贸易增速在中国各主要贸易伙伴中位列第一。

中俄双边贸易结构不断优化,近几年来亮点纷呈。在能源产品保持稳定的基础上,中俄机电和高新技术产品贸易保持两位数的快速增长。与此同时,农产品贸易稳步攀升,特别是食品贸易已经成为中俄双边贸易的新增长点。2017年全年,中国从俄罗斯进口的食品贸易额已超过30亿美元,占俄食品出口额的11%,成为俄食品第一大进口国。

推动中俄经贸关系发展进入新阶段

9月12日,曾经在“海洋”全俄儿童中心疗养的四川地震灾区学生代表和中心教职工合唱《感恩的心》。新华社发

跨境电商持续发展,成为中俄双边贸易快速崛起的新方式。2016年,中俄电商贸易额约23亿美元,占俄跨境电商贸易总额的54%。同期,俄罗斯网民线上购买的中国商品订单量同比增长5倍。2013年到2016年,在俄罗斯的入境包裹数中,来自中国网店的占比从60%上升至90%以上。据俄罗斯最大电子支付服务供应商Yandex的统计数据显示,2016年俄罗斯网民从中国订购的商品数量较2015年高出78%,在中国网店的消费总额增加了1.8倍,并且俄罗斯的中国网店顾客数量增加了38%。

第二,中国对俄投资数量与规模齐增,金融合作不断深入。

中国对俄投资显著增长。去年中国对俄直接投资22.2亿美元,同比增长72%,在俄新签工程承包合同额同比增长191.4%,增速在“一带一路”相关国家中位居前列。研究显示,2017年外国投资者在俄罗斯共投资了238个项目,其中,中国投资者投资的项目数量迅速扩大,德德搜书吧,从2016年的9个扩大到2017年的32个,首次位居外国直接投资项目数量之首。特别是在俄罗斯的远东地区,中国投资企业众多,仅滨海边疆区就有600多家中资企业,中国已成为俄远东地区第一大投资来源国。

另外,中俄两国融资、保险、证券、支付、银行卡等领域金融合作深入推进,银行间合作日益密切。目前,中国工商银行、中国农业银行、中国银行、中国建设银行、国家开发银行、中国进出口银行等6家中资银行均已在俄设立分支机构,中国五大国有商业银行与俄同业银行共建立了300多对代理行关系。金融领域的深入合作有效促进了中俄双边贸易与投资的便利往来。

第三,战略项目稳步推进,经贸各领域合作水平不断提高。

各个战略性大型项目稳步推进并实施,促使中俄经贸各领域合作水平不断深化。2017年7月,中俄两国元首就加快能源、核能、高铁、航空航天、基础设施等领域的战略性大项目合作达成了重要共识,指明了双方务实合作发展的方向。目前,中俄东线天然气管道、亚马尔LNG等能源项目顺利实施,其中亚马尔LNG项目第一期的液化天然气已经投产并运抵中国;中俄远程宽体客机已正式命名为CR929,项目研制进入实质阶段;位于中国黑龙江省同江市与俄罗斯哈巴罗夫斯克之间的铁路桥、黑龙江省黑河市与俄罗斯布拉戈维申斯克之间的公路桥项目工程建设按计划推进;中国参与的俄远东滨海1号、滨海2号国际交通走廊项目都已在建设实施中;以“北方航道”为标志的中俄“冰上丝绸之路”合作也已取得积极进展,借由北冰洋航道的贸易通道将逐渐建立起来。

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