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关注中国清洁能源:“风光”比你想象的更有能量

2018年04月13日 09:31来源:网络整理手机版

原标题:关注中国清洁能源:“风光”比你想象的更有能量

  青海清洁能源装机容量超八成,电力外送多个省份

  “风光”,比你想象的更有能量(美丽中国·关注清洁能源(下))

  地处祖国西部的青海,风电、光电、水电等清洁能源资源丰富,曾连续7天、168小时全部使用太阳能、风能及水力发电供应全省用电,创下世界纪录。而面对清洁能源消纳难题,青海做出了怎样的探索,又有哪些可资借鉴的经验?

  翻日月山,过塔拉滩,见峡谷险峻,高湖碧波,此处便是龙羊峡水电站。如今,它有了新身份:全球最大的水光互补电站。与其互补的,是距龙羊峡40多公里的青海省海南州绿色产业发展园区的恰龙光伏电站。

  “阳光强时,主要由光伏电站承担发电任务,水电尽可能少发或停用。阴天或晚上,则主要由水力发电。通过电网智能调度系统自动调节水电和光伏发电,确保水光互补电能平稳送出,光伏电能实现最大化消纳,减少弃光。”国网青海电力调控中心水电及新能源处处长李延和说,2017年,从这里外送江苏等省份20亿度电,青海清洁能源实现了在全国范围内优化配置,并为输入地减排二氧化碳60多万吨,相当于少烧24万多吨标准煤。

  蕴藏量丰富,新能源并网及消纳工程建设不断推进

  出共和县城十几公里,是连片的塔拉滩。占地600多亩的海南州绿色产业发展园区,就坐落在海拔3000多米的塔拉滩上。深居内陆、干燥少云、空气干净,“这里年均日照数近3000小时,”李延和说,塔拉滩上蕴藏着2万多兆瓦的发电资源,年均发电量可达329亿千瓦时。

  站在园区的观测塔顶放眼四望,数百万块电池板“精准定日”。“有的还装载跟踪系统,可‘追日’,随时保证太阳光直射电池板,显著提高了发电效率。”李延和说。

  作为我国太阳能资源最丰富的地区之一,除了光伏发电,青海的光热和风力发电也是日新月异。

  在德令哈工业园区,我国首座投运成功的规模化储能光热电站,依靠自主研发的光热发电技术、利用盐湖里丰富的熔盐资源实现光热储能——先让光能变成热能、再将热能转化为动能,最后实现动能向电能的转变。无论阴雨天还是夜晚,光热电站都可实现连续、稳定、可调度的电力输出。

  此外,青海还有年发电量1.07亿千瓦时的贝壳梁风电场,总装机容量49.5兆瓦的青海茶卡盐湖风电场工程等。近年来,随着新能源大规模并网,2017年6月17日零时至23日24时,青海创下清洁能源连续供电时间最长的世界纪录:连续7天、168小时全部使用太阳能、风能及水力发电供应全省用电。

  “我们每年滚动开展新能源消纳能力研究,连年推进新能源并网及消纳工程建设,陆续建设了17项新能源汇集送出工程、10项直接服务新能源消纳的主网输变电工程。”国网青海电力发展部规划一处工作人员秦绪武说。

  “而且,我们通过对清洁能源协调控制,调峰互济、水光互补,提高接纳能力”,国网青海电力调控中心调度计划处处长徐有蕊介绍,“在午间光伏大力发电期间,商联网,青海省内黄河大型水电、火电机组按最小方式和出力运行,中小型水电轮流错峰,最大限度腾出空间消纳新能源。”

  截至目前,青海电网总装机容量2580.4万千瓦。其中,水电1190万千瓦、光伏796.4万千瓦、风电192万千瓦,清洁能源装机容量已占总装机容量84.4%。

  建设特高压电网,打通外送通道

  据了解,清洁能源消纳瓶颈出现在2015年。“主要是青海省内用电市场小,新能源装机规模不断增长,已超过最大用电负荷。”秦绪武说,供大于求日益突出,“所以,外送才是‘七寸’”。

  “这就需要挖掘省内消纳市场,拓展省外市场,利用现有输电通道能力,积极开展与江苏、湖北等省份外送交易,提升新能源消纳空间。”李延和说,“由于青海没有专用的新能源跨省跨区外送通道,借用西北其他各省跨区通道大量外送清洁能源困难很多。因此,建设特高压直流外送通道是解决青海新能源消纳问题的关键。”

  特高压电网就像电力的高速公路。未来,青海要建设海南州、海西州两个千万千瓦级清洁能源基地。在省内用电市场增速放缓,无力支撑省内新能源全额消纳的形势下,建设特高压电网实现清洁能源跨区外送已成为当务之急。

  “目前,海南地区特高压外送通道建设已完成可行性研究报告。‘十三五’期间,将首先建成青海(海南)—河南特高压直流输电通道。”秦绪武说,“远期规划建设海西—华东特高压工程解决海西千万千瓦级清洁能源基地的送出需求,如此,可实现清洁能源发电量消纳能力再提高5%以上”。

  秦绪武说,“十二五”以来,网源协调发展,以每年100万千瓦新能源装机的增长速度有序开发,保证了相关配套设施同步跟进。

  提高协调管理能力,消纳比重达70%

  新能源产业迅猛发展,但目前还面临“消纳难”“外送难”“调峰难”三座大山。

  据了解,只有不断优化电网网架结构、解决外送瓶颈、采取技术创新突破,实现多能源协同发电控制,才能让风、光资源更“风光”。

  李延和介绍,青海省电力公司通过自主创新,建成新能源有功、无功实时控制系统,全网新能源功率预测系统以及智能调度技术支持系统等多个应用平台,成功研制国内首套高海拔光伏电站移动检测装置,建设清洁能源大数据中心,将全省所有的新能源电站全部纳入统一协调管理,实现运行控制的高度自动化和智能化。

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