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中建一局带你揭秘世界最大规模窑址群体迁移保护工程

2018年06月14日 04:47来源:网络整理手机版

人民网景德镇6月10日电 (朱江)今日,第三届首都国企开放日,数十名媒体、专家和景德镇市民走进世界唯一皇家瓷厂、中国唯一古御窑遗址——中建一局建设的江西景德镇御窑博物馆项目,前身是明清两代御用瓷器的专职制造场所——景德镇御窑厂。揭秘世界最大规模窑址群体迁移保护工程,中建一局项目团队用中国智慧和大国工匠精神,将中国现代建造神器和手工砌筑完美结合,创造了窑砖干挂及砌筑工艺在多曲面拱体结构上成功应用的世界首个案例。

中建一局景德镇御窑博物馆项目经理齐玉顺接受人民网记者采访时表示,御窑博物馆项目2016年10月正式动工,工程包括景德镇御窑博物馆、240栋古建筑修缮以及其他配套设施以及5条市政道路改造,总建筑面积约13.1万平方米。其中,御窑博物馆建筑面积1.04万平方米,由8个多曲面拱体结构造型构成。目前御窑博物馆结构主体、拱体窑砖砌筑和干挂已全部完工,8个拱体建筑初露端倪,正在进行拱内机电安装和幕墙工程以及配套修缮工程的施工。

齐玉顺强调,景德镇御窑博物馆工程建设过程中,遇到了总重量为734吨的明清时期的窑址,按照国家文物局的意见和要求,必须将其迁往5公里外的场地进行保护。窑址共六块,最重的窑址重达214吨,迁移途中要穿过浅埋密集燃气管道的老城区,这样的窑址迁移在国内外都没有可以参考的先例。中建一局景德镇御窑博物馆项目部设计了数套方案,成功闯过完整取出窑址、起吊、运输和归安四道大关,创造了世界最大规模窑址群体迁移的世界首个成功案例。

“御窑博物馆项目让我见证到景德镇陶瓷工匠精神的传承。”十九大代表邱赛珍在‘首都国企开放日’参观活动中向人民网记者介绍,通过参观御窑博物馆项目,了解景德镇古代烧窑陶瓷文化,最早的景德镇陶瓷就是这样建窑烧制的,让我仿佛身临其境感受到景德镇最早的建窑工匠技术,虽然现在的窑使用了现代技术科技,但是还是仿制古代烧窑手艺,我也是一名陶艺工匠,参观完后给我的第一感受就是古代工匠的手艺特别精益,技术高超。

齐玉顺指出,为保证窑址能完整地从地下取出,御窑博物馆项目团队首先在地下区域进行侧部分层开挖,逐层用工字钢和钢板进行侧向封闭至窑址底部,底部采用无缝光管水平并列拼接包封。为确保已封闭的窑址能顺利起吊,项目部将4根工字钢穿入底部起吊点钢管以增大钢管强度,再利用500吨和350吨的汽车吊同时起吊,协同作业。

“为了确保运输安全,顺利穿过道路狭窄的老城区,御窑博物馆项目团队提前用铁索和钢管加固了窑址和车辆,用有80个车轮的自动调平轴线车装载窑址,沿路铺设了20毫米厚的钢板路面以保护地下浅埋的管线,并委派管线检测人员全程进行地下管线检测,将意外事故发生率降到最低。”齐玉顺称。

齐玉顺还指出,在最后一道归安关卡,御窑博物馆项目团队用两台汽车吊协同作业,将窑址吊装下放至预定位置,并对其进行整体焊接、加固,涂刷防锈漆,在外侧搭建桁架保护棚以避免窑址受损,至此窑址归安顺利完成。

中建一局景德镇御窑博物馆项目BIM负责人万仁威介绍,为实现设计“拱体表面砖体的颜色、厚度、材质呈渐变趋势”的要求,中建一局景德镇御窑博物馆项目团队通过调整不同的粉料和熟料配比,定制了190万块响砖、窑汗砖、基砖、青砖和灰砖,同时搜集到90万块老窑砖,并前后进行了11次样板实验,对各种窑砖的比例和位置反复调整,仅窑砖干挂和砌筑一项累计使用280万块窑砖。

“每一块砖都是工人手工砌上去或挂上去的,所有的窑砖和构件必须精准保证精准的错缝,才能确保8个拱体的弧度是平滑的,不出现端部翘头的情况。工人砌挂完成每一平方厘米,项目技术人员均要运用放线机器人从不同方位对成型后拱体的弧度、角度进行复核校准,一旦发现拱体弧度有偏差,就要立刻调整。”齐玉顺如是说。

“御窑博物馆设计师要求最大程度凸显建筑本身的色彩,必须使用清水混凝土施工方案。”齐玉顺强调,清水混凝土是指混凝土拆模后不做任何装饰处理,这就要求预埋件及预留洞口位置必须准确,混凝土浇筑必须一次达到清水效果。但项目部发现景德镇以及周边省市的搅拌站,没有一家有清水混凝土施工经验,他们决定自己来试验配比。为了调配出符合设计要求的清水混凝土,项目部做了28次试验,终于找到了设计方认可的颜色。 

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(责编:曹昆、仝宗莉)

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