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美国贸易政策给世界经济增添下行风险(外媒看世界)

2018年10月02日 16:30来源:网络整理手机版

  美国政府无视国内和国际舆论的反对声音,近来再次对中国输美商品采取关税升级措施。为捍卫自身合法权益,中国不得不同步采取反制措施。国际舆论普遍担心,美国采取的单边主义贸易政策给世界经济增添下行风险,同时将给美国消费者和生产者带来更大损害,上海教育网,是典型的损人不利己行为。

  “关税是一种惩罚美国消费者和生产者的税收”

  美国宣布新一轮对中国输美商品加征关税后,立即招致了美国舆论的广泛谴责。美国《华尔街日报》报道称,加征关税将影响从行李箱到海鲜水产等数千种商品,更多美国消费者将受到影响。美国零售业领导者协会负责国际贸易的副总裁表示:“对于向美国消费者每天购买的数百万种产品加征关税的决定,我们感到极其失望。一言以蔽之,关税就是对美国家庭征税。(受加征关税影响)首当其冲的是美国消费者。”

  在《今日美国》网站发表的题为《特朗普针对中国的关税最终将伤害美国自己》的文章中,有美国农民质问:为什么我们有最好的农产品却卖不出去?有美国参议员在社交网站上写道:“关税是一种惩罚美国消费者和生产者的税收。”俄亥俄州的大豆种植者吉布斯对美国《新闻周刊》表示,“贸易战对这里的大豆种植者造成了毁灭性影响”“我们的价格下降了20%”。

  临近10月,美国将迎来节日消费季。普通美国消费者担心,加征关税之后,他们将难以有余钱购买涨幅高达10%—25%的商品。

  《纽约时报》称,加征关税在诸多美国港口引发恐慌。美联社对政府数据的分析显示,从西海岸到五大湖和墨西哥湾,如加征关税全面生效,至少有10%的进口商品会受到影响。洛杉矶市市长称,洛杉矶港作为美国最大的港口货运量可能会下降20%。

  美国全国广播公司财经频道报道称,在美国,计划关闭工厂、解雇员工、搁置新计划或提高价格的公司名单持续增长。宝马和通用汽车均以书面形式向美商务部发出警告。南卡罗来纳州表示,该州可能会丧失近4000个新工作岗位。沃尔沃汽车公司首席执行官萨缪尔森表示,“贸易壁垒和限制”将阻止他们创造“计划中的就业机会”。

  美国《外交政策》刊文称,苹果和福特公司表示,新的关税可能会使其产品价格上涨,或者影响商品生产地的选择。下一轮关税将首次包括一系列消费品,这将会给美国经济带来更大的阵痛。分析人士认为,无论是在欧洲还是在中国,与外国竞争对手相比,美国制造商的竞争力都将下降。

  《华盛顿邮报》援引一项调查称,在中国的430多家美国公司中,近2/3表示他们的业务“受到了损害”。近一半的公司表示,生产成本“已经攀升”,对其产品的需求在下降。

  对于刚刚遭受“弗洛伦斯”飓风影响的南卡罗来纳州等地的受灾民众来说,高关税还将拖累美国灾区重建。据加拿大《多伦多星报》网站报道,高关税将导致重建和装修房屋的成本增加,家具和家用电器的价格已经上涨。

  “贸易战注定失败”

  比加征关税对美国负面影响更令人担忧的,是美国政府不负责任的行为将对全球经济产生的冲击。

  《日本经济新闻》文章称,由美国政府挑起的贸易争端连锁反应可能在全球范围内筑起高墙。如果高关税导致国际分工的平衡被打破,很可能造成价格剧烈波动以及失业增加,这对世界经济来说是巨大风险。“在需要国际协调的时候,美国政府却在不断破坏多边体制,这是很可怕的”。

  西班牙一家媒体网站文章称,美国的保护主义措施将给世界带来极为严重的影响,一旦付诸实施,可能将世界经济拖入深度萧条中。深度依赖世界市场的美国各产业没有欢欣鼓舞的理由。

  “贸易战注定失败。”《华盛顿邮报》从经济周期的角度分析认为,美元升值将扩大美国的贸易逆差,美国使自身陷入了一场“没有胜利的冲突”。

  英国《金融时报》社论称,美国政府升级对华关税措施并不可取。文章认为,美国总统死死抱住一个“错误信念”,那就是收窄双边贸易逆差是中心政策目标,而贸易战是达到这一目标的途径。实际上,这种非常狭隘的衡量标准,摧毁的是创造价值的全球供应链,削弱的是美国以及全球经济。

  法国《回声报》社评文章认为,“美国是在世界范围内制造贸易混乱。”可谓一语中的。

  (本报北京9月22日电  记者王慧、尚凯元、李宁、敬宜、李欣怡、张矜若、张博岚)


  《 人民日报 》( 2018年09月23日 03 版)

(责编:章斐然、曹昆)

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