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让消费挑大梁(锐财经)

2018年10月02日 10:32来源:网络整理手机版

促进实物消费提档升级

大力发展便利店和社区菜店,通过改造提升推动形成一批高品位步行街,在人口净流入的大中城市加快培育和发展住房租赁市场,加大城市老旧小区加装电梯等适老化改造力度,全面取消二手车限迁政策,重点发展虚拟现实、增强现实、智能汽车、服务机器人等前沿信息消费产品,规范发展汽车、家电、电子产品回收利用行业等。

推进服务消费提质扩容

深化电影发行放映机制改革,健全文物合法流通交易体制机制,支持邮轮、游艇、自驾车、旅居车、通用航空等消费大众化发展,支持社会力量举办国际国内高水平体育赛事,大力发展老年护理和长期照护服务,引导社会力量按照规范要求举办普惠性幼儿园和托幼机构,支持外商投资设立非学制类职业教育培训机构。

日前,《中共中央 国务院关于完善促进消费体制机制 进一步激发居民消费潜力的若干意见》(下简称《意见》)正式发布,专门就构建更加成熟的消费细分市场、健全质量标准和信用体系、营造安全放心消费环境、改善居民消费能力和预期等问题作出部署,意在加快完善促进消费体制机制、增强消费对经济发展的基础性作用、构建符合中国长远战略利益的经济发展方式、更好满足人民日益增长的美好生活需要。

专家指出,满足人民日益增长的物质文化需求,既是发展的目的,也是发展的动力。在贸易保护主义升温、全球经济不确定性增强的背景下,《意见》的发布与实施将有助于中国经济抵御外部冲击、夯实内生动力、平稳转型升级。

营造安全放心环境

经济活动的出发点和落脚点最终在于满足人的消费需求。《意见》指出,中国消费领域的体制机制依然存在一些问题。例如:重点领域消费市场还不能有效满足城乡居民多层次多样化消费需求,监管体制尚不适应消费新业态新模式的迅速发展,质量和标准体系仍滞后于消费提质扩容需要,消费政策体系尚难以有效支撑居民消费能力提升和预期改善等。

面对这些问题,《意见》给出大量扎实举措。

如何促进实物消费提档升级?《意见》提出大力发展便利店和社区菜店,全面取消二手车限迁政策,重点发展虚拟现实等前沿信息消费产品等。

如何推进服务消费提质扩容?《意见》明确将深化电影发行放映机制改革,支持邮轮、游艇、通用航空等消费大众化发展,引导社会力量按照规范要求举办普惠性幼儿园和托幼机构,支持外商投资设立非学制类职业教育培训机构等。

如何营造安全放心消费环境?《意见》要求加快建立健全高层次、广覆盖、强约束的质量标准和消费后评价体系,提高消费者主体意识和维权能力。同时,《意见》也拿出了针对性举措,如培育一批能够展示中国产品优质形象的品牌和企业,加大新技术新产品等创新成果的标准转化力度,健全服务质量治理体系和顾客满意度测评体系,加大网络消费者权益司法保护力度等。

深层改革加速推进

值得注意的是,“增强消费对经济发展的基础性作用”并不是一句空话,要想让消费在经济发展中扮演更重要角色,离不开收入分配、市场环境、财政金融、统计监测等一系列深层次改革的支撑与配合。对于重点领域的深层次改革方面,《意见》也是着墨颇多。

在收入分配上,《意见》提出了诸多接地气的举措:建立反映人力资源市场供求关系和企业经济效益的工资决定机制和正常增长机制,落实以增加知识价值为导向的分配政策等。

在构建公平开放的市场环境上,《意见》提出消除所有制歧视,全面实施公平竞争审查制度,加快建立全国统一、开放、竞争、有序的市场体系;在完善财税金融土地配套政策上,《意见》提出推进个人所得税改革,玩意儿,落实好健康、养老、家政等生活性服务业的税收优惠政策……

中国国际经济交流中心副总经济师张永军在接受本报记者采访时指出,《意见》的内容不仅十分全面细致,而且涉及了很多影响消费却又比消费本身更深层、更宏观的重点改革领域。“需要看到,尽管我国中等收入群体正在不断扩大,但居民收入分配结构依然有很多改善空间,社会保障体系在一些群体、一些领域的覆盖还不够强,居民消费还有很大的释放潜力。《意见》中提出的举措,无疑从更根本的层面关注了制约消费的体制机制因素。”张永军说。

夯实内生增长动力

近年来,中国在扩大消费规模、提高消费水平、改善消费结构等方面取得了显著成绩,旅行社,消费对经济发展的基础性作用进一步凸显。中国居民消费的潜力,被越来越多的经济界人士所关注。

在中国银联股份有限公司董事长葛华勇看来,“80后”、“90后”成为消费主体后,消费趋势将会升级,消费方式和结构也会发生变化。麦肯锡公司大中华区执行合伙人倪以理表示,中国未来消费升级的风口在健康与互联网上。

专家指出,中国经济已由高速增长阶段转向高质量发展阶段。消费是生产的最终目的和动力,增加高品质的产品和服务有效供给,推动需求引领和供给变革相互促进,有助于夯实中国经济内生增长动力、实现高质量发展,有助于让改革发展成果更多更公平惠及全体人民。

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