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市场监管总局谈商事制度改革:马上还有第三批

2018年10月01日 14:10来源:网络整理手机版

人民网北京9月21日电 (记者 朱一梵)2015年12月16日,国务院常务会议审议通过了《关于上海市开展证照分离改革试点总体方案》,决定在上海浦东新区率先开展“证照分离”改革试点。将近3年过去了,改革的成效如何?下一步商事制度改又将如何推进?国家市场监管总局副局长马正其于今日上午的国务院政策例行吹风会回答了有关问题。

以“减证”促“简政” 营商环境世界排名上升18位

党的十八大以来,在以李克强同志为核心的党中央坚强领导下,全国工商和市场监管部门坚持简政放权、放管结合,推进商事制度改革取得了历史性成就。

围绕百姓经商创业的难点痛点,全国工商和市场监管部门先后实施了注册资本实缴制改认缴制、企业名称自主申报、压缩企业开办时间等一系列改革,推动市场准入制度发生了根本性变革:推进“先照后证”、“三证合一”“五证合一” “多证合一”改革,以“减证”促“简政”,降低了企业进入市场的制度性交易成本,极大激发了市场活力,促进了创业就业和民生改善,成为“放管服”改革中的一大亮点。

记者了解到,截止到8月底,市场主体总量已达1.05亿户,实有企业数量3233.54万户,日均新增企业数量由改革前的0.69万户上升到2018年的1.83万户。马正其介绍,“通过改革,促进和改善了营商环境,提高了国际竞争力和影响力,从2013年度到2017年度,玩意儿,我国营商环境的世界排名由第96位上升到78位,共提升了18位,其中开办企业便利度排名由158位上升到93位,大幅提升了65位。”

106项改革事项 有效降低了市场准入门槛和制度性交易成本

开展“证照分离”改革是落实党中央国务院重大决策部署,释放企业创新创业活力,推进营商环境法治化、国际化、便利化的重要举措。“证照分离”改革以突出“照后减证”为原则,除涉及国家安全、公共安全、金融安全、生态安全和公众健康等重大公共利益外,将许可类的“证”分别采用直接取消审批、审批改为备案、实行告知承诺、优化准入服务等4种方式分离出来,进一步厘清“证”“照”关系,理顺“证”“照”功能,从而减少审批发证。这是继“多证合一”改革之后,创新监管体制机制,推动信息互联共享,进而推进政府治理能力现代化的一项综合性改革。

实践证明,改革试点有效降低了市场准入门槛和制度性交易成本,取得了显著成效。”马正其说。2015年上海市浦东新区首推“证照分离”改革试点,2017年在更大范围进行了复制推广。马正其介绍,“在总结经验基础上,我们选取了试点效果良好的106项作为第一批改革事项,在全国推开。其中,取消审批的2项,市场主体办理营业执照后即可开展经营活动;改为备案的1项,市场主体报送备案材料后即可开展经营活动,不再审批;实行告知承诺的18项,市场主体承诺符合审批条件并提交有关材料后,当场办理审批;优化准入服务的84项,要针对市场主体关心的痛点难点问题,完善措施,提高市场主体登记审批时效。

有序推开“证照分离”改革 成熟一批复制一批

“不要着急,我们马上还要有第三批。”马正其谈到未来的改革时表示,“关键是在通过这次全国的推开建立了一个机制和平台,将来在这个基础上不断地根据市场经济的发展,不断地根据人们法治水平的提高、自律意识的更强,逐步的取消。做到成熟一批复制推广一批,在全国有序推开“证照分离”改革,逐步推动对所有涉及市场准入的行政审批事项施行分类管理,实现全覆盖,为企业进入市场提供便利。”

国务院发展研究中心研究员任兴洲认为,“持续优化营商环境,证和照好比是企业进入市场的两把钥匙,它们合在一起,企业才能够真正进入,才能真正的经营落地。只给一把,另一把不给,千龙电影网,只是个半拉子工程,企业真正想经营是做不到的。微观主体是经济最基本的细胞,这个细胞活不活是整个机体活不活的关键。证照分离也好、照后减证也好,都是为了释放微观主体的活力。现在经常说降税、降低融资成本,当然也很必要,但千万不要忽略了制度成本。我们在企业准入方面,还有很多的制度在束缚着市场主体,有一些是隐形的,看着证发得很快,但通往经营的路上还有那么多困难和障碍,必须要下决心解决。

(责编:朱一梵、李栋)

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