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业界共议共享住宿:须探索协同监管、行业自律新模式

2018年09月29日 05:36来源:网络整理手机版

人民网北京9月20日电 (孙阳)近期,共享住宿安全问题频发,再度引发社会对共享经济细分领域的关注与讨论。如何建立适应共享住宿新业态的监管机制和模式、如何建立共享住宿平台的自律机制、如何在共享住宿领域建立起“用户安全至上”的保障机制等话题也从引起学界和业界的热议。

日前,国家信息中心分享经济中心组织召开了“引导和推动共享住宿行业高质量发展”专题研讨会。国家信息中心分享经济研究中心主任张新红、首都经济贸易大学旅游管理系主任蔡红、北京第二外国语学院国际法学院申海恩副教授、中国网络空间研究院信息化研究所副所长刘冰、中国政法大学传播法研究中心副主任朱巍等业内专家以及共享住宿领域的平台企业就行业发展与改革展开了深入探讨。

国家信息中心数据显示,2017 我国共享住宿市场交易规模约 145 亿元,玩意儿,比上年增长 70.6%;参与者人数约为 7800 万人,其中房客约 7600 万人;主要共享住宿平台的国内房源数量约 300 万套。此外,2017年我国共享住宿融资额约为 5.4 亿美元,比上年增长约180%。

共享住宿行业高速发展的背后,住宿安全问题、行业标准缺失、住宿环境卫生等问题也逐渐浮出水面。

首都经济贸易大学旅游管理系主任蔡红认为,虽然共享住宿应该凸显个性化,但服务、安全等方面还是需要制定相关的标准。“现在共享住宿领域大多采用C2C的模式,短租平台承担的是房东房客联系的纽带,并没有直接控制房源,所以对房源设施设备的安全管理仍然有待于加强。”蔡红表示。

对于共享住宿业的安全问题,相关平台企业则表示安全是共享住宿的底线,目前用户信息查验审核、入住安全保障、信息数据共享、推广人脸识别、指纹识别等智能入住系统及设备的应用正在推进。

与此同时,共享住宿在实际推进的过程中也遭遇了“野蛮生长”的阵痛。今年6月1日,日本政府突然发布紧急通知,要求所有短租平台取消截至当日未添加备案号码房源的尚未入住的预订。

7月31日,成都成华区万年派出所发出通知,由于涉嫌住改商,并违反《治安管理处罚法》和《四川省旅店业治安管理办法》,对万年场附近观城小区12栋住宅不同楼层的7家民宿进行了通报,并给予取缔处理。据媒体报道,成都已经有不少小区明确禁止民宿进入。

对此,中国政法大学传播法研究中心副主任朱巍认为,共享住宿一定要区分经营性和非经营性。“民宿和共享经济不完全是一回事,经营性的民宿和非经营性的民宿有区别,经营性的民宿需要资质门槛审核,非经营性的民宿是分享经济,分享经济本身是民事行为,既然是民事行为商业的门槛可能没有必要。”朱巍表示。

北京师范大学中国绿色发展协同创新中心执行副主任张九天则认为,随着共享住宿的发展,其参与主体变得比较复杂和多元化,必须进行准确的界定。“我们的经营主体,以前一开始的时候说共享住宿,当时理解的就是个人房子,现在很多租房子来上平台的,还有一些房地产商也转型做,他们的出发点和利益诉求基本方向是一致的,但是还是有很多细微的差别。把共享住宿范围界定清楚,对于行业发展是至关重要的。”张九天认为。

不少专家认为,目前共享住宿行业存在的矛盾和问题需要平台、政府、用户以及各相关主体共同参与解决。

而针对传统的酒店管理的前置审批许可的管理模式,专家们认为,共享住宿很难照搬套用,而《物权法》中有关规定如若套用在共享住宿领域,从民宿经营者角度操作执行难度极大,不利于行业发展。对于可能出台的相应民宿管理法规条例,如若监管能力匹配不上,反而会提高监管成本,对行业良性发展反而会起到限制作用,专家建议应该在事中事后监管方面投入更多资源,更多吸纳行业参与主体参与到相关法律法规制订中,零启互联,结合共享住宿业态特征出台相应政策。

国家信息中心分享经济研究中心主任张新红认为,在行业自律方面,各企业要把安全问题作为底线。在具体做法上,除了认知,在技术上及团队建设上要有一整套可以解决问题的机制,与政府的监管部门、执法部门之间的联动要形成一套机制。

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