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消费提质升级四大看点:让消费者能消费、愿消费、敢消费

2018年09月28日 16:49来源:网络整理手机版

原标题:消费提质升级四大看点:让消费者能消费、愿消费、敢消费

  消费提质升级是我国经济平稳运行的“顶梁柱”、高质量发展的“助推器”,更是满足人民美好生活需要的直接体现。《中共中央 国务院关于完善促进消费体制机制 进一步激发居民消费潜力的若干意见》20日公布,为促进消费提质升级绘制“蓝图”。

  制约消费扩大和升级的体制机制障碍如何破解?消费新增长点如何培育壮大?如何让消费者“能消费”“愿消费”“敢消费”?记者采访相关人士,梳理出意见的四大看点。

  看点一:吃穿用安全放心 大力发展住房租赁市场

  在吃穿用住行等实物消费领域,意见指出,确保市场主体提供安全放心的吃穿用消费品。大力发展住房租赁市场特别是长期租赁。鼓励发展共享型、节约型、社会化的汽车流通体系,全面取消二手车限迁政策。并提出信息消费和绿色消费的发展方向。

  今年1至8月,反映实物消费的社会消费品零售总额同比增长9.3%。“去年社会消费品零售总额已达36.6万亿元,这么大的总盘子上,9%多的增速并不低,我国实物消费规模仍在不断扩大。”国家发展改革委综合司巡视员刘宇南说。

  中国宏观经济研究院研究员王蕴说,构建更成熟、涵盖高中低档的消费细分市场,一方面要着力保证基本消费经济、实惠、安全,提升一般消费品和服务的质量,保障居民基本消费需求获得较好满足;另一方面要培育中高端消费市场,以制度创新、技术创新和产品创新培育形成新供给,形成具有较强增长带动力的消费新增长点。

  看点二:全面放开养老服务市场 严格落实城镇小区配建幼儿园

  近年我国服务消费需求旺盛。“我国居民消费增长正处在服务消费与商品消费双轮驱动的阶段,服务消费是当前居民消费增长最快、热点最多、潜力最大的领域。”国务院发展研究中心市场经济研究所所长王微说。

  在服务消费领域,意见作出一系列部署安排——

  文化旅游体育消费,加快发展数字出版等新兴数字内容产业。推动主题公园规范发展。支持邮轮、游艇、自驾车、旅居车、通用航空等消费大众化发展。推动体育赛事电视转播市场化运作。

  健康养老家政消费,在有效保障基本医疗和健康服务的前提下,支持社会力量提供多层次多样化的医疗健康服务。全面放开养老服务市场。完善政府对养老服务机构运营补贴方式方法,由“补砖头”“补床头”向“补人头”转变。

  教育培训托幼消费,严格落实城镇小区配建幼儿园政策。全面实施幼儿园教师持证上岗。坚持社会效益和经济效益相统一,纠正以功利性为目的、助长超前教育和应试教育倾向的各类教育培训活动。

  “我国消费结构正由物质型消费为主向服务型消费为主转变。”中国(海南)改革发展研究院院长迟福林说,素材信息,关键要加大服务市场开放力度,解决供给严重不足的矛盾。

  国家发改委社会司司长欧晓理说,我国将完善应对人口老龄化的政策体系,吸引社会力量积极参与,持续扩大高质量养老服务供给。

  看点三:培育消费新热点 推动农村居民消费梯次升级

  随着“互联网+”向传统消费领域渗透融合,消费新业态新模式快速兴起。意见指出,积极培育网络消费、定制消费、体验消费、智能消费、时尚消费等消费新热点,鼓励与消费者体验、个性化设计、柔性制造等相关的产业加快发展。

  刘宇南说,引导消费新业态新模式有序发展,要建立健全适应平台模式、共享经济等创新发展的法律法规,加大政府制度供给。

  意见指出,加快农村吃穿用住行等一般消费提质扩容,鼓励和引导农村居民增加交通通信、文化娱乐、汽车等消费。

  王蕴说,随着农村居民收入持续较快增长和各类消费设施日益完善,农村居民消费潜力不断释放,消费增长的城乡协调性进一步增强。

  看点四:健全质量标准信用体系 深化收入分配制度改革

  质量和标准体系仍滞后于消费提质扩容需要,信用体系和消费者权益保护机制还未能有效发挥作用,居民消费能力和消费预期有待进一步改善……这些制约消费提质升级的体制机制障碍,亟待破除。

  刘宇南说,近年来出现购买力外流的现象,一方面是国内居民对高品质、高端产品和服务需求旺盛,国内市场暂时无法满足居民需求;另一方面,宅福利,也反映了对国内产品和服务信心不足的问题。

  意见提出,加快建立健全高层次、广覆盖、强约束的质量标准和消费后评价体系,强化消费领域企业和个人信用体系建设,提高消费者主体意识和维权能力,创建安全放心的消费环境。

  意见强调,完善有利于提高居民消费能力的收入分配制度。构建公平开放的市场环境。加大生活性服务领域有效有序开放力度,逐步放宽放开对外资的限制。

  王蕴说,实现劳动生产率与劳动报酬同步提高,经济发展与居民收入同步增长,这是促进居民消费能力持续提升和消费对经济发展基础性作用持续增强的重要基础。进一步深化收入分配制度改革、完善财税金融土地配套政策,有利于提升消费能力、改善消费预期,进一步激发我国居民的消费潜力。

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