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个人养老金建设紧迫向投资养老转变呼声高

2018年09月28日 13:11来源:网络整理手机版

原标题:个人养老金建设紧迫 向投资养老转变呼声高

  “都说中国人储蓄高,美国人储蓄少,如果从银行储蓄看,的确是这样,河南日报,但是如果从养老金层面看,事情就不是这样。”中国人民大学教授董克用在9月20日由中国基金业协会主办的“税收安排与养老金体系建设——《美国如何支持养老》中文版发布会”上说,美国民众三个支柱的养老金加起来,相当于美国当年GDP的145%左右,但是中国同一口径下养老金占GDP的比例不到7%。

  目前我国的养老金第三支柱——个人养老金建设已具有相当紧迫性。中欧基金董事长窦玉明列举了几大压力,比如新生儿数量骤减,由高峰时期的3000万降至目前的1700万,代际供养压力变大;其次是未富先老,我国民众的养老金储备量较少;另外,国人的寿命逐渐延长。这些因素都使得第一、第二支柱养老金难以积累到足够以支撑养老。

  广发基金副总经理王凡表示,目前我国的基本养老金替代率40%,要达到世界银行认为的70%的合理替代水平,每个人要在20~30年甚至更长的跨度上进行养老金积累,过程中通货膨胀、寿命延长等各种因素都会对退休后的养老金实际购买力产生较大影响,这对养老金投资都提出了更高要求。

  董克用表示,当下我国要做的事情,是把国人趴在账上的银行存款,通过税收优惠,慢慢地转到养老金账户上来,变储蓄养老为投资养老,实现“存一块取八块”。

  对于个人养老账户建设,窦玉明提出四点建议。第一,开放个人养老账户给多种金融理财产品,使得个人对账户资金有产品选择权;第二,体系建设应考虑便利性,比如退税安排等可增加加入账户的吸引力;第三,考虑到大部分人没有产品选择能力,建议为个人账户设置产品的默认选项,比如只需设定退休日后账户自动设计产品类型,年轻时多承担风险,年老时少承担风险;第四,进行投资者教育,提示民众关注养老金问题,养老不能只靠储蓄,还要重视长期投资复利的收益,选择好的养老产品。

  中国社科院世界社保研究中心主任郑秉文认为,从美国经验看,税式支出改革是推动养老金发展的关键。为此他提议:第一,尽快向综合所得税制转型,以家庭为单位实行年终税收调整,多退少补,这样建立第三支柱时一人参加就会覆盖全家,居民都可单独建立账户,才能不受雇主制约、避免第三支柱“个人养老账户”成为“企业年金第二”;第二,看球直播,建立资本利得税等税种,否则,庞大的银行存款还是难以转换到养老第二三支柱账户,税收递延的吸引力将大打折扣;第三,适时下调第一支柱缴费比例,适当提高第二三支柱的税收优惠比例。

  当前政府部门和学界正致力推动建设养老第三支柱,今年税收递延养老保险已开始试点,明年5月1日具有税收优惠的个人养老账户有望建立并开放给保险、基金、银行理财等不同类型产品。国人将从“储蓄养老”向“投资养老”转变。

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