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农业农村部:春耕生产进展顺利质量兴农绿色兴农呈现良好态势

2018年03月28日 10:52来源:网络整理手机版

人民网北京3月27日电 据农业农村部官方网站消息,当前全国由南向北全面进入春耕生产大忙季节。据农业农村部农情调度和各省反映,今年各地认真贯彻落实中央“三农”工作决策部署,以实施乡村振兴战略为总抓手,紧紧围绕推进农业供给侧结构性改革这一主线,坚持质量兴农、绿色兴农,加强指导,强化措施,持续推进种植结构调整,努力提高供给体系质量,春耕生产进展顺利。

今年春耕生产有五个特点:一是夏粮生产基础较好。今年冬小麦面积基本稳定。因晚播面积大,小麦越冬前苗情长势差于上年、差于常年。立春后,光温水匹配较好,加之各地早抓早管,落实促弱转壮措施,苗情转化升级较快。专家田间调查分析,返青一、二类苗比例80.3%,比越冬前提高6.8个百分点,比上年同期低6.0个百分点。二是结构调整势头良好。各地加强政策宣传,强化信息引导,指导农民合理安排种植结构,呈现调优态势。无效供给减少,特别是黑龙江寒地井灌稻和南方低产低质籼稻面积减少较多,“镰刀弯”等非优势区籽粒玉米继续调减。有效供给增加,大豆、杂粮、马铃薯继续增加。棉花面积持平略减,糖料持平略增,油料、蔬菜、饲草面积增加。三是绿色发展加快推进。各地坚持以新发展理念为引领,大力推进绿色兴农,促进农业可持续发展。深入开展化肥、农药使用量零增长行动,扎实推进有机肥替代化肥,大力推进病虫绿色防控和统防统治,开展全程绿色防控试点,提高化肥、农药利用率。开展整建制绿色高质高效创建,提升创建水平。扎实开展耕地轮作休耕制度试点,今年试点面积将扩大到3000万亩。四是农资供应数量充足。针对今年化肥、农药价格上涨的情况,各地加强余缺调剂,保证春耕生产需要。

各地反映,今年春耕生产仍面临一些困难和问题。一是局部地区旱情持续发展。截至3月26日,河北省麦田缺墒面积900万亩,其中严重缺墒300多万亩,主要集中在沧州、衡水、邯郸、邢台等黑龙港地区,水源条件较差,抗旱保春管促春播任务艰巨。二是化肥等农资价格上涨。据监测,3月上旬尿素市场价格每吨2073元,同比上涨12.7%;国产磷酸二铵每吨3000元,同比上涨5.4%。农药价格同比上涨25.1%,农用柴油价格同比上涨7.0%。三是气候不确定性增大。目前,一次弱的“拉尼娜”已形成,极端天气发生几率增大。据中国气象局预测,2018年我国农业气象年景中等偏差,华北北部、东北西部、江南南部和华南北部可能出现春旱。

针对今年春耕生产面临的困难和问题,农业农村部及早安排部署,立春后第二天就召开全国春季田管暨春耕备耕工作视频会议,对有关工作进行安排部署。及早制定下发了春季田管技术指导意见和科学应对拉尼娜防灾救灾保丰收预案。春节期间就派出工作组和专家指导组,深入华北受旱区,开展工作督导和技术指导,推动落实抗旱促春管措施,全力促进春管春播顺利开展。

今年是贯彻党的十九大精神、实施乡村振兴战略的开局之年。“一年之计在于春”,各级农业部门将按照中央部署,紧紧围绕农业供给侧结构性改革这一主线,坚定稳定优化粮食生产目标不动摇,加大力度,强化措施,有力有序推进春耕生产顺利开展,努力保持粮食和农业发展的好势头。一是毫不放松抓好粮食生产。集中力量保口粮,落实好稻谷、小麦最低收购价等政策,力争稻谷、小麦面积稳定在8亿亩。实施“藏粮于地”、“藏粮于技”战略。划定粮食生产功能区,加强高标准农田建设,深入开展耕地质量保护和提升行动,夯实粮食安全的根基。切实抓好春季田管,强化分类指导,创新推动“促弱转壮、病虫防控”关键措施落实到位。二是扎实推进结构调整。减少无效供给,重点压减寒地低产区粳稻面积和南方双季稻产区籼稻面积,力争水稻面积调减1000万亩以上,继续调减“镰刀弯”非优势产区籽粒玉米面积。增加有效供给,大力发展优质稻米、强筋弱筋小麦、优质蛋白大豆、双低油菜、高产高糖甘蔗等大宗优质农产品。拓展高效供给,加快发展道地中药材、食用菌、茶叶、水果、杂粮杂豆等特色作物。三是加力推进绿色发展。深入开展绿色高质高效创建,选择325个重点县开展整建制创建,集成推广绿色生态环保、资源高效利用、生产效能提升的绿色高效技术模式。深入开展化肥、农药使用量零增长行动,扎实推进有机肥替代化肥,大力推进病虫绿色防控和统防统治,选择150个县开展全程绿色防控试点,提高化肥、农药利用率。扎实开展耕地轮作休耕制度试点,确保完成3000万亩的轮作休耕试点任务。四是切实加强防灾减灾。密切关注重大天气变化,及早做好应对春旱、春涝、倒春寒等灾害的物资和技术准备,做到防在灾害前面、救在第一时间。加强病虫监测预警,做好小麦条锈病、赤霉病等病虫害防控。加强病虫监测预警,及时发布预警信息,大力推进统防统治,对病虫重发区开展联防联控、群防群控,坚决遏制病虫暴发流行。同时,狠抓农资市场监管,保障供应,确保安全。

(责编:蒋琪、仝宗莉)

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